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Following in the Footsteps of the Chikungunya Virus in Brazil: The First Autochthonous Cases in Amapá in 2014 and Its Emergence in Rio de Janeiro during 2016

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Viral Immunology Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Laboratório Central /Amapa (LACEN/AP), 68908-530 Macapa, Brazil
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Laboratório de Fronteira (LAFRON), Oiapoque, 69980-000 Amapa, Brazil
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Rio-Laranjeiras Hospital, 22240-000 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Gaffrée Guinle University Hospital, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, 20270-003 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Flavivirus Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110623
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 6th Pan-American Dengue Research Network Meeting)
Currently, Brazil lives a triple arboviruses epidemic (DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV) making the differential diagnosis difficult for health professionals. Here, we aimed to investigate chikungunya cases and the possible occurrence of co-infections during the epidemic in Amapá (AP) that started in 2014 when the first autochthonous cases were reported and in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) in 2016. We further performed molecular characterization and genotyping of representative strains. In AP, 51.4% of the suspected cases were confirmed for CHIKV, 71.0% (76/107). Of those, 24 co-infections by CHIKV/DENV, two by CHIKV/DENV-1, and two by CHIKV/DENV-4 were observed. In RJ, 76.9% of the suspected cases were confirmed for CHIKV and co-infections by CHIKV/DENV (n = 8) and by CHIKV/ZIKV (n = 17) were observed. Overall, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, prostration, edema, exanthema, conjunctival hyperemia, lower back pain, dizziness, nausea, retroorbital pain, and anorexia were the predominating chikungunya clinical symptoms described. All strains analyzed from AP belonged to the Asian genotype and no amino acid changes were observed. In RJ, the East-Central-South-African genotype (ECSA) circulation was demonstrated and no E1-A226V mutation was observed. Despite this, an E1-V156A substitution was characterized in two samples and for the first time, the E1-K211T mutation was reported in all samples analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chikungunya virus; surveillance; co-infection; ECSA genotype; Asian genotype; Brazil chikungunya virus; surveillance; co-infection; ECSA genotype; Asian genotype; Brazil
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De Souza, T.M.A.; Ribeiro, E.D.; Corrêa, V.C.; Damasco, P.V.; Santos, C.C.; De Bruycker-Nogueira, F.; Chouin-Carneiro, T.; Faria, N.R.C.; Nunes, P.C.G.; Heringer, M.; Lima, M.R.Q.; Badolato-Corrêa, J.; Cipitelli, M.C.; Azeredo, E.L.; Nogueira, R.M.R.; Dos Santos, F.B. Following in the Footsteps of the Chikungunya Virus in Brazil: The First Autochthonous Cases in Amapá in 2014 and Its Emergence in Rio de Janeiro during 2016. Viruses 2018, 10, 623.

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