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Viruses 2018, 10(11), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110617

Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage K on Expression of Cytokines and Activation Markers by Human Dendritic Cells In Vitro

Department of Bacteriophage Therapeutics, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
Current address: Pharmaceutical Systems, US Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA.
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Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
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Abstract

A potential concern with bacteriophage (phage) therapeutics is a host-versus-phage response in which the immune system may neutralize or destroy phage particles and thus impair therapeutic efficacy, or a strong inflammatory response to repeated phage exposure might endanger the patient. Current literature is discrepant with regard to the nature and magnitude of innate and adaptive immune response to phages. The purpose of this work was to study the potential effects of Staphylococcus aureus phage K on the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Since phage K acquired from ATCC was isolated around 90 years ago, we first tested its activity against a panel of 36 diverse S. aureus clinical isolates from military patients and found that it was lytic against 30/36 (83%) of strains. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were used to test for an in vitro phage-specific inflammatory response. Repeated experiments demonstrated that phage K had little impact on the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, or on MHC-I/II and CD80/CD86 protein expression. Given that dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells and messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems, our results suggest that phage K does not independently affect cellular immunity or has a very limited impact on it. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; bacteriophage K; human dendritic cells; cytokines and activation markers Staphylococcus aureus; bacteriophage K; human dendritic cells; cytokines and activation markers
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Freyberger, H.R.; He, Y.; Roth, A.L.; Nikolich, M.P.; Filippov, A.A. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage K on Expression of Cytokines and Activation Markers by Human Dendritic Cells In Vitro. Viruses 2018, 10, 617.

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