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Viruses 2018, 10(11), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110618

CMV2b-Dependent Regulation of Host Defense Pathways in the Context of Viral Infection

1
State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
College of Life Science, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Virus Interactions)
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Abstract

RNA silencing (or RNA interference, RNAi) plays direct roles in plant host defenses against viruses. Viruses encode suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counteract host antiviral defenses. The generation of transgenic plants expressing VSRs facilitates the understanding of the mechanisms of VSR-mediated interference with the endogenous silencing pathway. However, studying VSRs independent of other viral components simplifies the complex roles of VSRs during natural viral infection. While suppression of transgene silencing by the VSR 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) requires 2b-small RNA (sRNA) binding activity, suppression of host antiviral defenses requires the binding activity of both sRNAs and AGOs proteins. This study, aimed to understand the functions of 2b in the context of CMV infection; thus, we performed genome-wide analyses of differential DNA methylation regions among wild-type CMV-infected, CMVΔ2b-infected, and 2b-transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These analyses, together with transcriptome sequencing and RT-qPCR analyses, show that while the majority of induced genes in 2b-transgenic plants were involved in extensive metabolic pathways, CMV-infection 2b-dependent induced genes were enriched in plant immunity pathways, including salicylic acid (SA) signaling. Together with infection with CMV mutants that expressed the 2b functional domains of sRNA or AGO binding, our data demonstrate that CMV-accelerated SA signaling depends on 2b-sRNA binding activity which is also responsible for virulence. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMV; RNAi; VSRs; 2b protein; SA CMV; RNAi; VSRs; 2b protein; SA
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Zhao, J.-H.; Liu, X.-L.; Fang, Y.-Y.; Fang, R.-X.; Guo, H.-S. CMV2b-Dependent Regulation of Host Defense Pathways in the Context of Viral Infection. Viruses 2018, 10, 618.

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