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Viruses 2018, 10(11), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110612

Viroid Diseases in Pome and Stone Fruit Trees and Koch’s Postulates: A Critical Assessment

1
Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 70126 Bari, Italy
2
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Applied Biology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Tree Viruses and Viroids)
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PDF [2456 KB, uploaded 7 November 2018]
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Abstract

Composed of a naked circular non-protein-coding genomic RNA, counting only a few hundred nucleotides, viroids—the smallest infectious agents known so far—are able to replicate and move systemically in herbaceous and woody host plants, which concomitantly may develop specific diseases or remain symptomless. Several viroids have been reported to naturally infect pome and stone fruit trees, showing symptoms on leaves, fruits and/or bark. However, Koch’s postulates required for establishing on firm grounds the viroid etiology of these diseases, have not been met in all instances. Here, pome and stone fruit tree diseases, conclusively proven to be caused by viroids, are reviewed, and the need to pay closer attention to fulfilling Koch’s postulates is emphasized. View Full-Text
Keywords: viroid pathogenesis; symptoms; woody plants; ADFVd; AFCVd; AHVd; ASSVd; HSVd; PBCVd; PLMVd viroid pathogenesis; symptoms; woody plants; ADFVd; AFCVd; AHVd; ASSVd; HSVd; PBCVd; PLMVd
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Di Serio, F.; Ambrós, S.; Sano, T.; Flores, R.; Navarro, B. Viroid Diseases in Pome and Stone Fruit Trees and Koch’s Postulates: A Critical Assessment. Viruses 2018, 10, 612.

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