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Open AccessArticle

Photodynamic Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
2
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal, V-541 Pavillon Roger Gaudry, 2900 Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
3
Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, 6 University Avenue, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6, Canada
4
Photodynamic, Inc., 1344 Summer Street, Halifax, NS B3H 0A8, Canada
5
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 301 McIver Street, Greensboro, NC 27402, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100532
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Natural Products in HSV Research)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated with direct acting antivirals like acyclovir and foscarnet, but long-term use can lead to drug resistance, which motivates research into broadly-acting antivirals that can provide a greater genetic barrier to resistance. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) employs a photosensitizer, light, and oxygen to create a local burst of reactive oxygen species that inactivate microorganisms. The botanical plant extract OrthoquinTM is a powerful photosensitizer with antimicrobial properties. Here we report that Orthoquin also has antiviral properties. Photoactivated Orthoquin inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection of target cells in a dose-dependent manner across a broad range of sub-cytotoxic concentrations. HSV inactivation required direct contact between Orthoquin and the inoculum, whereas pre-treatment of target cells had no effect. Orthoquin did not cause appreciable damage to viral capsids or premature release of viral genomes, as measured by qPCR for the HSV-1 genome. By contrast, immunoblotting for HSV-1 antigens in purified virion preparations suggested that higher doses of Orthoquin had a physical impact on certain HSV-1 proteins that altered protein mobility or antigen detection. Orthoquin PDI also inhibited the non-enveloped adenovirus (AdV) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas Orthoquin-mediated inhibition of the enveloped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was light-independent. Together, these findings suggest that the broad antiviral effects of Orthoquin-mediated PDI may stem from damage to viral attachment proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: HSV-1; HSV-2; photodynamic inactivation; plaque assay; natural product; antiviral HSV-1; HSV-2; photodynamic inactivation; plaque assay; natural product; antiviral
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Monjo, A.L.-A.; Pringle, E.S.; Thornbury, M.; Duguay, B.A.; Monro, S.M.A.; Hetu, M.; Knight, D.; Cameron, C.G.; McFarland, S.A.; McCormick, C. Photodynamic Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses. Viruses 2018, 10, 532.

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