Next Article in Journal
Use of Nuclear Microsatellite Loci for Evaluating Genetic Diversity of Selected Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karsten in the Czech Republic
Next Article in Special Issue
Progress and Challenges of Protecting North American Ash Trees from the Emerald Ash Borer Using Biological Control
Previous Article in Journal
Modeling Ecosystem Services for Park Trees: Sensitivity of i-Tree Eco Simulations to Light Exposure and Tree Species Classification
Previous Article in Special Issue
Coleopteran Communities Associated with Forests Invaded by Emerald Ash Borer
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2018, 9(2), 90;

Reducing Firewood Movement by the Public: Use of Survey Data to Assess and Improve Efficacy of a Regulatory and Educational Program, 2006–2015

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WI DNR), P.O. Box 7291, Madison, WI 53707, USA
Alpha Technology Group LLC, 23 South Owen Drive, Madison, WI 53705-5032, USA
Forest Stewards Guild, 612 W. Main St., Suite 200, Madison, WI 53703, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding and Managing Emerald Ash Borer Impacts on Ash Forests)
Full-Text   |   PDF [690 KB, uploaded 19 February 2018]


This paper describes a program of policy management and research from 2006 through 2015. It focuses on regulator efforts to understand and address challenges presented by dispersal of forest diseases and invasive pests in firewood by the camping public. Five surveys conducted at two-year intervals informed these efforts. The first survey in 2006 benchmarked campers’ awareness of forest threats by invasive species, their evaluations of firewood supplied at and near Wisconsin state parks, and their compliance with firewood movement rules which had been implemented that year. The 2008 survey tested for improvements in awareness and compliance and investigated campers’ motivations. The motivation research showed that calculated, normative, and social motivations are all important to rule compliance in the camping context. Surveys in 2010, 2012, and 2014 confirmed these results and guided education and outreach efforts, adjustments to firewood movement rules for Wisconsin state parks and forests, and improvements to firewood supplies at state campgrounds. The survey sequence as a whole revealed that: (1) compliance improves dramatically in early program years and then levels off, suggesting that it may be unrealistic and cost ineffective to strive for 100% compliance in similar regulatory contexts; (2) persistence in messaging is important in building awareness and motivation; and (3) regulation and persuasion based on motivational principles can extend beyond specific situations where informing and regulating take place, suggesting that public properties can be useful venues for encouraging other types of environmentally responsible behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: firewood; emerald ash borer; regulation; compliance; motivation; forest health firewood; emerald ash borer; regulation; compliance; motivation; forest health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Diss-Torrance, A.; Peterson, K.; Robinson, C. Reducing Firewood Movement by the Public: Use of Survey Data to Assess and Improve Efficacy of a Regulatory and Educational Program, 2006–2015. Forests 2018, 9, 90.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top