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Forests 2018, 9(12), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9120760

Stand Characteristics and Soil Properties Affecting the Occurrence of Kunyushan Web-Spinning Sawfly (Cephalcia kunyushanica Xiao) in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Pure Forests in the Kunyushan Mountains, China

1
Institute of Forest Ecological Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091, China
2
Kunyushan Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Yantai, Shandong 264100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
PDF [447 KB, uploaded 5 December 2018]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

: The Kunyushan web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia kunyushanica) is a major pest in the Japanese red pine (JRP, Pinus densiflora) pure forests in the Kunyushan Mountains of China. In this study, four stand types (ST1–4) were identified in plots of JRP pure forests, based on the pest severity index (PSI; ranging from 0–100). The order of infestation ratio in the four type stands was as follows: ST4 > ST3 > ST2 > ST1. We investigated the correlation of C. kunyushanica occurrence with stand characteristics and soil physicochemical properties in the four stand types. The results showed that all stand characteristics were different among the four stand types. Compared with infested plots, healthy (ST1) plots had a higher soil bulk density, and the differences among the groups were significant. Differences in soil water content, non-capillary porosity, and total porosity were significant among the four ST groups. The average organic matter content, total nitrogen (N), and available N were lower in ST1 plots, whereas total potassium (K) was higher compared with other ST groups. In addition, a redundancy analysis suggested that seven (total N, diameter at breast height (DBH), soil water content, bulk density, available K, zinc ion (Zn2+), and stem density) of 24 environmental variables were significantly correlated with the ordinations of C. kunyushanica occurrence. The results provide theoretical guidance for the ecological control of C. kunyushanica, and are also useful for the management of forests in areas where C. kunyushanica is a major pest and where site and stand conditions are similar.
Keywords: Japanese red pine pure forests; Cephalcia kunyushanica; stand type; stand characteristics; soil properties Japanese red pine pure forests; Cephalcia kunyushanica; stand type; stand characteristics; soil properties
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hu, R.; Liang, J.; Xie, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X. Stand Characteristics and Soil Properties Affecting the Occurrence of Kunyushan Web-Spinning Sawfly (Cephalcia kunyushanica Xiao) in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Pure Forests in the Kunyushan Mountains, China. Forests 2018, 9, 760.

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