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Article

Trade-Offs among Release Treatments in Jack Pine Plantations: Twenty-Five Year Responses

1
Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, 1235 Queen St. East, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
2
Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 1055 du P.E.P.S., P.O. Box 10380, Sainte-Foy Stn., Québec City, QC G1V 4C7, Canada
3
Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Wood Science Testing Laboratory, 955 Oliver Rd., Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hannu Hökkä
Forests 2021, 12(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030370
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 20 March 2021
We assessed 27 indicators of plant diversity, stand yield and individual crop tree responses 25 years post-treatment to determine long-term trade-offs among conifer release treatments in boreal and sub-boreal forests. This research addresses the lack of longer-term data needed by forest managers to implement more integrated vegetation management programs, supporting more informed decisions about release treatment choice. Four treatments (untreated control, motor-manual brushsaw, single aerial spray, and complete competition removal) were established at two jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) sites in Ontario, Canada. Our results suggest that plant diversity and productivity in boreal jack pine forests are significantly influenced by vegetation management treatments. Overall, release treatments did not cause a loss of diversity but benefitted stand-scale yield and individual crop tree growth, with maximum benefits occurring in more intensive release treatments. However, none of the treatments maximized all 27 indicators studied; thus, forest managers are faced with trade-offs when choosing treatments. Research on longer term effects, ideally through at least one rotation, is essential to fully understand outcomes of different vegetation management on forest diversity, stand yield, and individual crop tree responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetation management; Pinus banksiana; plantations; herbicides; glyphosate; growth and yield; diversity vegetation management; Pinus banksiana; plantations; herbicides; glyphosate; growth and yield; diversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deighton, H.D.; Bell, F.W.; Thiffault, N.; Searle, E.B.; Leitch, M.; Sharma, M.; Dacosta, J. Trade-Offs among Release Treatments in Jack Pine Plantations: Twenty-Five Year Responses. Forests 2021, 12, 370. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030370

AMA Style

Deighton HD, Bell FW, Thiffault N, Searle EB, Leitch M, Sharma M, Dacosta J. Trade-Offs among Release Treatments in Jack Pine Plantations: Twenty-Five Year Responses. Forests. 2021; 12(3):370. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030370

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deighton, Holly D., Frederick W. Bell, Nelson Thiffault, Eric B. Searle, Mathew Leitch, Mahadev Sharma, and Jennifer Dacosta. 2021. "Trade-Offs among Release Treatments in Jack Pine Plantations: Twenty-Five Year Responses" Forests 12, no. 3: 370. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030370

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