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Global Geographic Distribution and Host Range of Fusarium circinatum, the Causal Agent of Pine Pitch Canker

Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, 412 No.1 Road RD2, 3182 Te Puke, New Zealand
Department of Plant Production and Forest Resources, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain
Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid – INIA, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Plant Pathology and Mycology, Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Akademická 2, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
Bioforest S.A., Km. 15 S/N, Camino a Coronel, 403 0000 Concepcion, Chile
Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, HaMaccabim Rd 68, 7528809 Rishon LeZion, Israel
Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, I.P. (INIAV, I.P.) & GREEN-IT Bioresources for Sustainability, ITQB NOVA. Av da República, Quinta do Marquês, 2780-159 Oeiras, Portugal
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine, 18, 50144 Firenze, Italy
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sundsvägen 3, 23053 Alnarp, Sweden
WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Department of Forest Protection, G. M. Vysotskiy Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration, 61024 Kharkiv, Ukraine
Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
Faculty of Forestry, Isparta University of Applied Sciences, 32260 Isparta, Turkey
Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI), Messeweg 11/12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Lynwoond and University Roads, 0028 Pretoria, South Africa
Department of Forest Entomology, Phytopathology and Game fauna, Forest Research Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 132 St. Kliment Ohridski Blvd, 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria
Department of Natural Resources, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
ANSES Plant Health Laboratory, Unit of Mycology, Domaine de Pixérécourt, Bât. E., 54220 Malzéville, France
Forestry Science Department, Neiker Institute, Campus Agroalimentario de Arkaute, S/N 01080 Arkaute, Álava, Spain
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology & Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Arch. Kyprianos Str. 30, 3603 Limassol, Cyprus
Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops, Jānis Fabriciuss str., 2/28, 354002 Sochi, Russia
Forest Protection Department, NARIC Forest Research Institute, Hegyalja u. 18, 3232 Mátrafüred, Hungary
Laboratorio de Sanidad Vegetal, Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, C/ Lucas Rodríguez Pire, 4-bajo, 33011 Oviedo, Spain
Institute of Botany, Nature Research Centre, Žaliųjų ežerų 49, 08412 Vilnius, Lithuania
Department of Forest Protection, Faculty of Forestry, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade, Serbia
Phytophthora Research Centre, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Forest Protection, Wood Science and Game Management, Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University, Institutskiy per., 5, 194021 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Department of Forests, Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment, Loukis Akritas 26, 1414 Nicosia, Cyprus
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Wóycickiego 1/3 Street, 01-938 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Forest Protection, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Forestry, Çankırı Karatekin University, 18200 Çankırı, Turkey
Department of Forest Protection, Forest Research Institute in Sękocin Stary, Braci Leśnej 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
Faculty of Forestry, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, 16 Makedonska brigada br.1, 1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
Department of Forest Protection, National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry – Brașov Station, Cloșca 13, 500040 Brașov, Romania
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection – C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano, 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Biotechnology and Plant Health Division, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, 1431 Ås, Norway
Centre of Forest Research, National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA), C. Coruna, 28040 Madrid, Spain
INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, BIOGECO, F-33610 Cestas, France
Forest Health Protection Programme, Smurfit Kappa Colombia – University of Pretoria, Calle 15 N° 18 -109. Yumbo – Valle Colombia, 760502 Cali, Colombia
Plant Pathology Laboratory, Calabazanos Forest Health Center (Regional Government of Castilla y León), Polígono Industrial de Villamuriel S/N, Villamuriel de Cerrato, 34190 Palencia, Spain
Department of Biogeography and Environmental Protection, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya emb., 13B, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Faculty of Forestry, University of Extremadura, Avenida Virgen del Puerto 2, 10600 Plasencia, Spain
Laboratory and Research Division, Plant Analytics Unit, Finnish Food Authority, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems, Terma Alkmanos, 11528 Athens, Greece
Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest Systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, UK
Department of Vegetal Production and Forestry Resources, College of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering, University of Valladolid, Av Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
Forest Research Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Surrey, Farnham GU10 4LH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(7), 724;
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Bio-Based Management of Forest Pests and Pathogens)
Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker (PPC), is currently one of the most important threats of Pinus spp. globally. This pathogen is known in many pine-growing regions, including natural and planted forests, and can affect all life stages of trees, from emerging seedlings to mature trees. Despite the importance of PPC, the global distribution of F. circinatum is poorly documented, and this problem is also true of the hosts within countries that are affected. The aim of this study was to review the global distribution of F. circinatum, with a particular focus on Europe. We considered (1) the current and historical pathogen records, both positive and negative, based on confirmed reports from Europe and globally; (2) the genetic diversity and population structure of the pathogen; (3) the current distribution of PPC in Europe, comparing published models of predicted disease distribution; and (4) host susceptibility by reviewing literature and generating a comprehensive list of known hosts for the fungus. These data were collated from 41 countries and used to compile a specially constructed geo-database. A review of 6297 observation records showed that F. circinatum and the symptoms it causes on conifers occurred in 14 countries, including four in Europe, and is absent in 28 countries. Field observations and experimental data from 138 host species revealed 106 susceptible host species including 85 Pinus species, 6 non-pine tree species and 15 grass and herb species. Our data confirm that susceptibility to F. circinatum varies between different host species, tree ages and environmental characteristics. Knowledge on the geographic distribution, host range and the relative susceptibility of different hosts is essential for disease management, mitigation and containment strategies. The findings reported in this review will support countries that are currently free of F. circinatum in implementing effective procedures and restrictions and prevent further spread of the pathogen. View Full-Text
Keywords: invasive pathogen; climate change; interactive map of pathogen; susceptibility invasive pathogen; climate change; interactive map of pathogen; susceptibility
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Drenkhan, R.; Ganley, B.; Martín-García, J.; Vahalík, P.; Adamson, K.; Adamčíková, K.; Ahumada, R.; Blank, L.; Bragança, H.; Capretti, P.; Cleary, M.; Cornejo, C.; Davydenko, K.; Diez, J.J.; Lehtijärvi, H.T.D.; Dvořák, M.; Enderle, R.; Fourie, G.; Georgieva, M.; Ghelardini, L.; Hantula, J.; Ioos, R.; Iturritxa, E.; Kanetis, L.; Karpun, N.N.; Koltay, A.; Landeras, E.; Markovskaja, S.; Mesanza, N.; Milenković, I.; Musolin, D.L.; Nikolaou, K.; Nowakowska, J.A.; Ogris, N.; Oskay, F.; Oszako, T.; Papazova-Anakieva, I.; Paraschiv, M.; Pasquali, M.; Pecori, F.; Rafoss, T.; Raitelaitytė, K.; Raposo, R.; Robin, C.; Rodas, C.A.; Santini, A.; Sanz-Ros, A.V.; Selikhovkin, A.V.; Solla, A.; Soukainen, M.; Soulioti, N.; Steenkamp, E.T.; Tsopelas, P.; Vemić, A.; Vettraino, A.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Woodward, S.; Zamora-Ballesteros, C.; Mullett, M.S. Global Geographic Distribution and Host Range of Fusarium circinatum, the Causal Agent of Pine Pitch Canker. Forests 2020, 11, 724.

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