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Manila Declaration on Forest and Landscape Restoration: Making It Happen
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Co-Creating Conceptual and Working Frameworks for Implementing Forest and Landscape Restoration Based on Core Principles

1
Tropical Forests and People Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD 4558, Australia
2
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268, USA
3
Commonland, Kraanspoor 26, 1033 SE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Forest Sciences, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900, Brazil
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Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden
6
Center for International Forestry Research, La Molina, Lima 15024, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(6), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11060706
Received: 23 May 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest and Landscape Restoration—Making it Happen)
Existing guidelines and best-practices documents do not satisfy, at present, the need for guiding implementation of Forest and Landscape Restoration (FLR) based on core principles. Given the wide range of FLR practices and the varied spectrum of actors involved, a single working framework is unlikely to be effective, but tailored working frameworks can be co-created based on a common conceptual framework (i.e., a common core set of principles and a generalized set of criteria and indicators). We present background regarding FLR concepts, definitions, and principles, and discuss the challenges that confront effective and long-term implementation of FLR. We enumerate the many benefits that a transformative criteria and indicators framework can bring to actors and different sectors involved in restoration when such framework is anchored in the FLR principles. We justify the need to co-develop and apply specifically tailored working frameworks to help ensure that FLR interventions bring social, economic, and environmental benefits to multiple stakeholders within landscapes and adjust to changing conditions over time. Several examples of working FLR frameworks are presented to illustrate the goals and needs of communities, donors and investors, and government agencies. Transparency, feedback, communication, assessment, and adaptive management are important components of all working frameworks. Finally, we describe existing FLR guidelines and what we can learn from them. Working frameworks can be developed and used by different actors who seek to initiate an FLR process and to align restoration actions at different scales and levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: actors; best practices; criteria; guidelines; implementation; indicators; operational framework; principles; stakeholders actors; best practices; criteria; guidelines; implementation; indicators; operational framework; principles; stakeholders
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Chazdon, R.L.; Gutierrez, V.; Brancalion, P.H.S.; Laestadius, L.; Guariguata, M.R. Co-Creating Conceptual and Working Frameworks for Implementing Forest and Landscape Restoration Based on Core Principles. Forests 2020, 11, 706.

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