Next Article in Journal
Latitude and Weather Influences on Sun Light Quality and the Relationship to Tree Growth
Next Article in Special Issue
Recent Consequences of Climate Change Have Affected Tree Growth in Distinct Nothofagus macrocarpa (DC.) FM Vaz & Rodr Age Classes in Central Chile
Previous Article in Journal
Forest Decline Triggered by Phloem Parasitism-Related Biotic Factors in Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of a Tree Growth Difference Equation and Its Application in Forecasting the Biomass Carbon Stocks of Chinese Forests in 2050
Open AccessReview

Interactions between Climate and Nutrient Cycles on Forest Response to Global Change: The Role of Mixed Forests

Departamento de Ciencias, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, Pamplona, 31006 Navarra, Spain
Forests 2019, 10(8), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10080609
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Climate Change on Tree Growth and Forest Ecosystems)
  |  
PDF [2924 KB, uploaded 24 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Forest ecosystems are undergoing unprecedented changes in environmental conditions due to global change impacts. Modification of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen, and the subsequent climate change are affecting forest functions at different scales, from physiology and growth of individual trees to cycling of nutrients. This review summarizes the present knowledge regarding the impact of global change on forest functioning not only with respect to climate change, which is the focus of most studies, but also the influence of altered nitrogen cycle and the interactions among them. The carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect on tree growth is expected to be constrained by nutrient imbalances resulting from high N deposition rates and the counteractive effect of increasing water deficit, which interact in a complex way. At the community level, responses to global change are modified by species interactions that may lead to competition for resources and/or relaxation due to facilitation and resource partitioning processes. Thus, some species mixtures can be more resistant to drought than their respective pure forests, albeit it depends on environmental conditions and species’ functional traits. Climate change and nitrogen deposition have additional impacts on litterfall dynamics, and subsequent decomposition and nutrient mineralization processes. Elemental ratios (i.e., stoichiometry) are associated with important ecosystem traits, including trees’ adaptability to stress or decomposition rates. As stoichiometry of different ecosystem components are also influenced by global change, nutrient cycling in forests will be altered too. Therefore, a re-assessment of traditional forest management is needed in order to cope with global change. Proposed silvicultural systems emphasize the key role of diversity to assure multiple ecosystem services, and special attention has been paid to mixed-species forests. Finally, a summary of the patterns and underlying mechanisms governing the relationships between diversity and different ecosystems functions, such as productivity and stability, is provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration; drought; N deposition; species interactions; ecosystem stoichiometry; adaptive management; diversity—functioning relationships atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration; drought; N deposition; species interactions; ecosystem stoichiometry; adaptive management; diversity—functioning relationships
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

González de Andrés, E. Interactions between Climate and Nutrient Cycles on Forest Response to Global Change: The Role of Mixed Forests. Forests 2019, 10, 609.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top