Next Article in Journal
Effect of Deadwood on Ectomycorrhizal Colonisation of Old-Growth Oak Forests
Next Article in Special Issue
What (De)Motivates Forest Users’ Participation in Co-Management? Evidence from Nepal
Previous Article in Journal
Discriminating Urban Forest Types from Sentinel-2A Image Data through Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis: A Case Study of Xuzhou, East China
Open AccessArticle

Preserving Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in West African Forest, Watersheds, and Wetlands: A Review of Incentives

Department of Governance in International Agribusiness and Department of Agricultural Production and Resource Economics, Technical University of Munich (TUM), 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(6), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10060479
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protected Areas in Forest Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities)
While biodiversity and ecosystem services derived from the natural environment are the backbones of West African rural livelihood, unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, conflicts, and climate change threaten the continued provision of ecosystem services. This threat creates an urgent need to safeguard the integrity of the environment. Evaluating the effectiveness of environmental conservation projects is central towards designing and scaling-up successful conservation projects. Using secondary literature and project reports, we reviewed ongoing and completed conservation projects in the West African sub-region. Scientific work on incentives for ecosystem services in sub-Saharan Africa typically focuses on Southern and Eastern Africa, leaving Western Africa underserved. This study fills this literature gap by compiling lessons from conservation projects in West Africa to offer region-specific incentives that should inform the design of conservation projects in the region. The study shows that the way forward is a holistic, sustainable development approach that mirrors and meets strategies outlined in Sustainable Development Goals 1, 2, 5, 8, 13, and 17: No Poverty, End Hunger and Promote Sustainable Agriculture, Gender Equality, Decent Work and Economic Growth, Climate Action, and Partnerships for the Goals, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiversity; ecosystem services; West Africa; incentives; Sustainable Development Goals biodiversity; ecosystem services; West Africa; incentives; Sustainable Development Goals
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ola, O.; Benjamin, E. Preserving Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in West African Forest, Watersheds, and Wetlands: A Review of Incentives. Forests 2019, 10, 479.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop