Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Propagation of Oriental White Oak Quercus aliena Blume
Next Article in Special Issue
Exploring Nonlinear Intra-Annual Growth Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica L. Trees at the Italian ICP-Forests Level II Network
Previous Article in Journal
Logging Community-Based Forests in the Amazon: An Analysis of External Influences, Multi-Partner Governance, and Resilience
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Planting Density on Soil Bulk Density, pH and Nutrients of Unthinned Chinese Fir Mature Stands in South Subtropical Region of China
Open AccessArticle

The Phenological Growth Stages of Sapindus mukorossi According to BBCH Scale

by Guochun Zhao 1,2,3, Yuhan Gao 1,2, Shilun Gao 1,2,3, Yuanyuan Xu 1,2,3, Jiming Liu 1,2,3, Caowen Sun 1,2, Yuan Gao 1,2,3, Shiqi Liu 1,2,3, Zhong Chen 1,2,3,* and Liming Jia 1,2,3
Key Laboratory of Silviculture and Conservation of the Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
National Energy R&D Center for Non-food Biamass, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
National Innovation Alliance of Sapindus Industry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(6), 462;
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Stand Management and Biomass Growth)
Sapindus mukorossi is a native tree in southern China that has multiple useful functions, including high landscaping, ecological, esthetic, and economic values. More importantly, its fruits are being rapidly developed as raw materials for bioenergy and saponin production in southern China. To provide a standardized phenological description of the species, this study firstly used the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie) scale. In total, eight principal stages—i.e., bud, leaf and shoot development, inflorescence emergence, flowering, fruit development, fruit maturity, senescence and beginning of dormancy—and 58 secondary stages were described. It ranges from vegetative bud dormancy to the onset of the next beginning of the dormancy, using a two-digit numerical coding system. In addition to the descriptions, we provide photographic images of some major developmental stages to standardize morphological characteristics and the phenological observation of S. mukorossi. This study will be an asset for biological researches and cultivation management in Sapindus, and will provide valuable information for other fruit trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sapindus mukorossi; BBCH scale; developmental stages; phenology Sapindus mukorossi; BBCH scale; developmental stages; phenology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, G.; Gao, Y.; Gao, S.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Sun, C.; Gao, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, Z.; Jia, L. The Phenological Growth Stages of Sapindus mukorossi According to BBCH Scale. Forests 2019, 10, 462.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop