Next Article in Journal
Altitudinal Biodiversity Gradient and Ecological Drivers for Different Lifeforms in the Baotianman Nature Reserve of the Eastern Qinling Mountains
Previous Article in Journal
N Isotope Fractionation in Tree Tissues During N Reabsorption and Remobilization in Fagus crenata Blume
Open AccessArticle

Larval Aggregation of Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Evidence of Horizontal Transfer of Avermectin

1
Guangdong Key Laboratory for Innovation Development and Utilization of Forest Plant Germplasm, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD 21801, USA
3
Department of Biology, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD 21801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(4), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10040331
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg is an economically important tree species that produce the highly prized agarwood. In recent years, agarwood production has been seriously threatened by the outbreak of Heortia vitessoides Moore, a leaf-eating pest that shows gregariousness during the larval stage. However, little attention has been paid to the aggregation behavior of H. vitessoides larvae. In the present study, we collected 102 cohorts of H. vitessoides larvae (13,173 individuals in total) in the wild; 54 cohorts were comprised of the same-instar larvae, and 48 cohorts were comprised of larvae with different developmental stages (instars). In general, young larvae (<third instar) tended to form large aggregations, whereas older-instar larvae were either solitary or formed small aggregations. Laboratory studies showed a strong aggregation tendency in the newly hatched and second-instar larvae of H. vitessoides, whenever the individuals originated from the same or different sibling cohorts. In addition, all newly hatched larvae died within two days after they were isolated. When newly hatched larvae were initially assigned in 10-larvae cohorts (containing sibling individuals) or 20-larvae cohorts (either containing individuals originating from the same or different sibling cohorts), their larval survivorship, duration of larval stage, and adult emergence were not significantly different. Interestingly, combining avermectin-treated larvae (donors) with untreated ones (receptors) significantly decreased larval survivorship and adult emergence of receptors, indicating a horizontal transfer of avermectin among H. vitessoides larvae. This study enhances our understanding of the population ecology of H. vitessoides, and may bring novel insights into the management strategies against this pest. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg; Heortia vitessoides Moore; gregarious larvae; horizontal transfer; avermectin Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg; Heortia vitessoides Moore; gregarious larvae; horizontal transfer; avermectin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, S.; Cai, J.; Chen, X.; Jin, Z.; Zhang, J.; Huang, Z.; Tang, L.; Sun, Z.; Wen, X.; Wang, C. Larval Aggregation of Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Evidence of Horizontal Transfer of Avermectin. Forests 2019, 10, 331.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop