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Forests 2019, 10(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10010075

Abiotic and Biotic Disturbances Affecting Forest Health in Poland over the Past 30 Years: Impacts of Climate and Forest Management

1
Department of Forestry and Forest Ecology, Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Pl. Łódzki 2, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Mountain Forests, The Forest Research Institute, ul. A. Fredry 39, 30-605 Kraków, Poland
3
Department of Forest Protection and Ecology, Division of Mycology and Forest Phytopathology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
To mark the centenary of Poland’s Independence.
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts, Monitoring and Management of Forest Pests and Diseases)
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Abstract

The current nature of forest management in Poland reflects its history and more than 100 years of economic activity affecting forests since independence in 1918. Before that time, different forest management models were used, related to the nature of the Prussian economy in the north of the country, the Russian economy in the central-eastern part, and the Austrian economy in south-eastern Poland. The consequence of these management models, as well as the differing climate zones in which they were used, resulted in varied forest health. Since the end of World War II, forest coverage within Poland‘s new borders has increased from 20.8% to currently 29.6%, mainly as a result of afforestation of wastelands and former agricultural lands. This paper describes changes in the health of forests and their biological diversity in Poland in the context of weather extremes, species composition, forest management, the forest industry, and damage from insects and pathogenic fungi over the last 30 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: forestry models; climate change; forest management; abiotic and biotic disturbances; forest health forestry models; climate change; forest management; abiotic and biotic disturbances; forest health
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Sierota, Z.; Grodzki, W.; Szczepkowski, A. Abiotic and Biotic Disturbances Affecting Forest Health in Poland over the Past 30 Years: Impacts of Climate and Forest Management. Forests 2019, 10, 75.

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