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SEM, EDS and XPS Analysis of the Coatings Obtained on Titanium after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Electrolytes Containing Copper Nitrate

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Division of Surface Electrochemistry & Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Racławicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin, Poland
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Institute of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, ŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Realfagbygget E3-124 Høgskoleringen 5, NO 7491 Trondheim, Norway
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Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Institute of Clean Technologies for Mining and Utilization of Raw Materials for Energy Use, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Regional Materials Science and Technology Centre, Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew J. Ruys
Materials 2016, 9(5), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9050318
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
In the paper, the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results of the surface layer formed on pure titanium after plasma electrolytic oxidation (micro arc oxidation) at the voltage of 450 V are shown. As an electrolyte, the mixture of copper nitrate Cu(NO3)2 (10–600 g/L) in concentrated phosphoric acid H3PO4 (98 g/mol) was used. The thickness of the obtained porous surface layer equals about 10 μm, and it consists mainly of titanium phosphates and oxygen with embedded copper ions as a bactericidal agent. The maximum percent of copper in the PEO surface layer was equal to 12.2 ± 0.7 wt % (7.6 ± 0.5 at %), which is the best result that the authors obtained. The top surface layer of all obtained plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings consisted most likely mainly of Ti3(PO4)4∙nH3PO4 and Cu3(PO4)2∙nH3PO4 with a small addition of CuP2, CuO and Cu2O. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO); micro arc oxidation (MAO); copper nitrate; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS); X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) titanium; plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO); micro arc oxidation (MAO); copper nitrate; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS); X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
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Rokosz, K.; Hryniewicz, T.; Matýsek, D.; Raaen, S.; Valíček, J.; Dudek, Ł.; Harničárová, M. SEM, EDS and XPS Analysis of the Coatings Obtained on Titanium after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Electrolytes Containing Copper Nitrate. Materials 2016, 9, 318.

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