Next Article in Journal
Image Charge Effects in the Wetting Behavior of Alkanes on Water with Accounting for Water Solubility
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Ca Content on Formation and Photoluminescence Properties of CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ Phosphor by Combustion Synthesis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Materials 2016, 9(3), 179;

Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, Na)NbO3 and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes

Physics Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos SP 13565-905, Brazil
Physics Department, Maringá State University, Av. Colombo, 5790, Maringá PR 87020-900, Brazil
Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 330 Talim street—Vila Nair, São Jose dos Campos SP 12231-280, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lorena Pardo
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3676 KB, uploaded 8 March 2016]   |  


Lead free piezoelectric materials are being intensively investigated in order to substitute lead based ones, commonly used in many different applications. Among the most promising lead-free materials are those with modified NaNbO3, such as (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 (BTNN) families. From a ceramic processing point of view, high density single phase KNN and BTNN ceramics are very difficult to sinter due to the volatility of the alkaline elements, the narrow sintering temperature range and the anomalous grain growth. In this work, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and high-energy ball milling (HEBM), following heat treatments (calcining and sintering), in oxidative (O2) atmosphere have been used to prepare single phase highly densified KNN (“pure” and Cu2+ or Li1+ doped), with theoretical densities ρth > 97% and BTNN ceramics (ρth - 90%), respectively. Using BTTN ceramics with a P4mm perovskite-like structure, we showed that by increasing the NaNbO3 content, the ferroelectric properties change from having a relaxor effect to an almost “normal” ferroelectric character, while the tetragonality and grain size increase and the shear piezoelectric coefficients (k15, g15 and d15) improve. For KNN ceramics, the results reveal that the values for remanent polarization as well as for most of the coercive field are quite similar among all compositions. These facts evidenced that Cu2+ may be incorporated into the A and/or B sites of the perovskite structure, having both hardening and softening effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead-free piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; piezoelectrics; spark plasma sintering lead-free piezoelectrics; ferroelectrics; piezoelectrics; spark plasma sintering

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Eiras, J.A.; Gerbasi, R.B.Z.; Rosso, J.M.; Silva, D.M.; Cótica, L.F.; Santos, I.A.; Souza, C.A.; Lente, M.H. Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, Na)NbO3 and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes. Materials 2016, 9, 179.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top