Next Article in Journal
Deep Drawing of High-Strength Tailored Blanks by Using Tailored Tools
Next Article in Special Issue
Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, Na)NbO3 and (Ba, Na)(Ti, Nb)O3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes
Previous Article in Journal
Properties of Non-Structural Concrete Made with Mixed Recycled Aggregates and Low Cement Content
Previous Article in Special Issue
Revisiting the Characterization of the Losses in Piezoelectric Materials from Impedance Spectroscopy at Resonance
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Materials 2016, 9(2), 71;

Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

Grupo de Ingeniería Aplicada a los Procesos Agrícolas y Biológicos, Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Ruta 3, Km 363, 60000 Paysandú, Uruguay
Departamento de Engenharia Mecatrônica e de Sistemas Mecânicos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231, CP 05508-030 São Paulo, Brazil
Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 05508-090 São Paulo, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lorena Pardo
Received: 4 October 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 27 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)


Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM), to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: piezoelectric ceramic; complex parameters; optimization; finite elements piezoelectric ceramic; complex parameters; optimization; finite elements

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez, N.; Buiochi, F.; Brizzotti Andrade, M.A.; Adamowski, J.C. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves. Materials 2016, 9, 71.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top