Next Article in Journal
Triggered Release from Thermoresponsive Polymersomes with Superparamagnetic Membranes
Next Article in Special Issue
Influence of Radiation Sterilization on Properties of Biodegradable Lactide/Glycolide/Trimethylene Carbonate and Lactide/Glycolide/ε-caprolactone Porous Scaffolds with Shape Memory Behavior
Previous Article in Journal
A Comparison of Simple Methods to Incorporate Material Temperature Dependency in the Green’s Function Method for Estimating Transient Thermal Stresses in Thick-Walled Power Plant Components
Previous Article in Special Issue
Liquefied Wood as Inexpensive Precursor-Feedstock for Bio-Mediated Incorporation of (R)-3-Hydroxyvalerate into Polyhydroxyalkanoates
Open AccessArticle

Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid: Biodegradable Polymer for Potential Protection of Beneficial Viruses

Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
Department of Biology, College of Science, Tikrit University, Tikrit PO Box 42, Iraq
Center of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 34, Zabrze 41-819, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carla Renata Arciola
Materials 2016, 9(1), 28;
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Bio-Based Polymers)
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a naturally occurring polymer, which due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties has been used successfully in the food, medical and wastewater industries. A major hurdle in bacteriophage application is the inability of phage to persist for extended periods in the environment due to their susceptibility to environmental factors such as temperature, sunlight, desiccation and irradiation. Thus, the aim of this study was to protect useful phage from the harmful effect of these environmental factors using the γ-PGA biodegradable polymer. In addition, the association between γ-PGA and phage was investigated. Formulated phage (with 1% γ-PGA) and non-formulated phage were exposed to 50 °C. A clear difference was noticed as viability of non-formulated phage was reduced to 21% at log10 1.3 PFU/mL, while phage formulated with γ-PGA was 84% at log10 5.2 PFU/mL after 24 h of exposure. In addition, formulated phage remained viable at log10 2.5 PFU/mL even after 24 h of exposure at pH 3 solution. In contrast, non-formulated phages were totally inactivated after the same time of exposure. In addition, non-formulated phages when exposed to UV irradiation died within 10 min. In contrast also phages formulated with 1% γ-PGA had a viability of log10 4.1 PFU/mL at the same exposure time. Microscopy showed a clear interaction between γ-PGA and phages. In conclusion, the results suggest that γ-PGA has an unique protective effect on phage particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodegradable polymer; γ-PGA; bacteriophage biodegradable polymer; γ-PGA; bacteriophage
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Khalil, I.R.; Irorere, V.U.; Radecka, I.; Burns, A.T.H.; Kowalczuk, M.; Mason, J.L.; Khechara, M.P. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid: Biodegradable Polymer for Potential Protection of Beneficial Viruses. Materials 2016, 9, 28.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop