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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Different Three-Dimensional Open Porous Titanium Scaffold Designs on Human Osteoblasts Behavior in Static and Dynamic Cell Investigations

1
University Medicine Rostock, Department of Orthopaedics, Biomechanics and Implant Technology Laboratory, Doberaner Strasse 142, Rostock 18057, Germany
2
Institute for Polymer Technology, Alter Holzhafen 19, Wismar 23966, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sudipta De
Materials 2015, 8(8), 5490-5507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8085259
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
In the treatment of osseous defects micro-structured three-dimensional materials for bone replacement serve as leading structure for cell migration, proliferation and bone formation. The scaffold design and culture conditions are crucial for the limited diffusion distance of nutrients and oxygen. In static culture, decreased cell activity and irregular distribution occur within the scaffold. Dynamic conditions entail physical stimulation and constant medium perfusion imitating physiological nutrient supply and metabolite disposal. Therefore, we investigated the influence of different scaffold configurations and cultivation methods on human osteoblasts. Cells were seeded on three-dimensional porous Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds manufactured with selective laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM) varying in porosity, pore size and basic structure (cubic, diagonal, pyramidal) and cultured under static and dynamic conditions. Cell viability, migration and matrix production were examined via mitochondrial activity assay, fluorescence staining and ELISA. All scaffolds showed an increasing cell activity and matrix production under static conditions over time. Expectations about the dynamic culture were only partially fulfilled, since it enabled proliferation alike the static one and enhanced cell migration. Overall, the SLM manufactured scaffold with the highest porosity, small pore size and pyramidal basic structure proved to be the most suitable structure for cell proliferation and migration. View Full-Text
Keywords: scaffold; Ti-6Al-4V; microstructure; bioreactor; human osteoblasts; static culture; dynamic culture; additive manufacturing scaffold; Ti-6Al-4V; microstructure; bioreactor; human osteoblasts; static culture; dynamic culture; additive manufacturing
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Markhoff, J.; Wieding, J.; Weissmann, V.; Pasold, J.; Jonitz-Heincke, A.; Bader, R. Influence of Different Three-Dimensional Open Porous Titanium Scaffold Designs on Human Osteoblasts Behavior in Static and Dynamic Cell Investigations. Materials 2015, 8, 5490-5507.

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