- freely available
Materials 2015, 8(2), 499-518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8020499
2. Experimental Investigation
2.1. Materials and Preparation of the CPCMs
|Chemical Composition||Kaolin (%)||GGBS (%)|
|Silicon dioxide (SiO2)||46||31.7|
|Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)||38||14.5|
|Ferric oxide (Fe2O3)||0.73||1.37|
|Titanium dioxide (TiO2)||0.19||-|
|Calcium oxide (CaO)||0.02||38.5|
|Magnesium oxide (MgO)||0.06||8.13|
|Sodium oxide (Na2O)||0.03||-|
|Potassium oxide (K2O)||0.65||-|
|Sulfate as SO3||-||2.61|
|Loss on ignition||13.7||-|
2.2. Test Methods for Characterization of the CPCMs
2.2.1. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
2.2.2. Chemical Compatibility of the CPCMs
2.2.3. Thermal Properties of the CPCMs
- Equilibrate at 0.00 °C
- Isothermal for 3.00 min
- Ramp 5.00 °C/min to 40.00 °C
- Isothermal for 2.00 min
- Ramp 5.00 °C/min to 0.00 °C
- End of method
2.2.4. Thermal Stability of the CPCMs
2.2.5. Thermal Reliability of the CPCMs
- 1–8 h: the temperature was maintained at 26 °C.
- 8–12 h: the temperature was decreased to 18 °C at a rate of 2 °C/h.
- 12–20 h: the temperature was maintained at 18 °C.
- 20–24 h: the temperature was increased to 26 °C at a rate of 2 °C/h.
2.2.6. Thermal Performance of Cement-Paste Panels
|Sample Number||Thermal Conductivity Coefficient (W/mK) (Test temperature 22–30 °C)||Density (kg/m3)||Specific Heat Capacity (J/kg·K) (Test Temperature 5 °C/35 °C)||Enthalpy (J/kg)|
|Cement paste with KO-CPCM||0.77||1980||1180/1228||7842|
|Cement paste with GGBS-CPCM||0.82||2050||1061/1132||4038|
3. Test Results and Discussion
3.1. Morphology and Optimum Percentage Retained by CPCMs
3.2. FT-IR Spectroscopy of the CPCMs
|2924||Methylene C–H stretching||[21,22,23]|
|2853||Methylene C–H stretching||[23,24,25]|
|1467||Methylene/Methyl C–H bending|||
|1378||Methyl C–H bending||[23,26,27]|
|3696, 3669, 3653, 3620||Al–O–H stretching||[28,29,30,31]|
|1115, 1031, 1007||Si–O stretching||[28,29,34,35]|
|937, 912||Al–OH bending||[29,32,34]|
|711||Si–O–Si (Al) stretching|||
3.3. Thermal Properties of the CPCMs
3.4. Thermal Stability of the CPCMs
3.5. Thermal Reliability of the CPCMs
3.6. Thermal Performance of CPCMs
3.6.1. Thermal Performance of Paraffin-Kaolin Composite
3.6.2. Thermal Performance of Paraffin-GGBS Composite
- Through vacuum impregnation, the maximum percentage of paraffin retained by Kaolin and GGBS was found to be 18% and 9%, respectively. ESEM micrographs showed that paraffin was well confined in the pores of Kaolin and GGBS through capillary forces and surface tension which, in turn, prevented the seepage of the melted PCM.
- FT-IR results showed that the interaction between the components of composite PCM are physical in nature and were also responsible for preventing the leakage of paraffin during its phase transition from solid to liquid. It can therefore be concluded that the components of the prepared CPCMs are chemically compatible with each other.
- From DSC analysis, it was found that the phase-change temperatures of the developed CPCMs are in the proper temperature range for human comfort. Therefore, it can be used in building applications as a thermal energy-storage material where it can moderate the fluctuations in indoor temperatures and improve the indoor thermal environment. Moreover, the prepared CPCMs have considerable energy-storage potential; therefore, they can be used to decrease cooling, heating, and air-conditioning loads in buildings.
- From TGA results, it was found that none of the prepared CPCMs showed signs of degradation below 150 °C, and almost no weight loss was observed, indicating that the prepared CPCMs are very stable in the working temperature region. Therefore, it can be concluded that the CPCMs have good thermal stability and can be used in thermal energy-storage applications.
- The chemical structure of prepared CPCMs was not affected by thermal cycling. Moreover, the changes observed in the phase-change temperature and latent heat storage of the prepared CPCMs after repeated thermal cycling were smaller. Therefore, the prepared CPCMs have good thermal reliability.
- From the self-designed thermal performance setup, it was found that the prepared CPCMs are effective in reducing the indoor temperature. Additionally, the temperature curves for the room model with CPCMs were right-shifted. Therefore, it can be concluded that CPCMs may be helpful in reducing the energy consumption by decreasing the indoor temperature and hence can be a potential candidate for applications in building facades.
Conflicts of Interest
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