Next Article in Journal
Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Resistance of RC Members Subjected to Bending with/without Axial Force
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental Study of Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Random Copolymer and Rice-Husk-Based Biocomposite by Using Nanoindentation
Article

Incorporation of Optical Density into the Blending Design for a Biocement Solution

1
Japanese Geotechnical Association for Housing Disaster Prevention, 1622, Oshikiri, Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka 424-0008, Japan
2
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
3
Chubu Sokuchi Research Institute Co., 801-1 Konami, Suwa 392-0131, Japan
4
Sanko Kaihatsu Co., Ltd., 1320 Gokanjima, Fuji 416-0946, Japan
5
Department of Building, Civil and Environment Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W., Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Miguel Ángel Sanjuán and F. Pacheco Torgal
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051951
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2022 / Accepted: 2 March 2022 / Published: 6 March 2022
The engineering practices for applying the microbial precipitation of carbonates require a design of the blending biocement solution (BCS). The BCS is usually blended with concentrated strains NO-A10, reaction media, such as urea and CaCl2, and a solvent, i.e., water or seawater. To characterize the BCS, the unknown microbial characteristics, such as the cell viability, are complex factors. Therefore, the optical density (OD) was redefined as Rcv OD*, in which OD* was the tentative OD of the BCS used and Rcv was the conversion rate concerning the cell viability. To determine Rcv values, a standard precipitation curve based on the precipitation rate at 24 h was determined. It was found that the curve was expressed by λ1 OD+ λ2 OD2, in which λ1 and λ2 were 8.46 M and −17.633 M, respectively. With this, the Rcv and OD values of unknown BCS were estimated from the results of precipitation tests using arbitrary OD* values. By extending the testing time, the second order term of OD or OD* was negligible. Accordingly, the precipitation amount is expressed as 8.46 OD, in which the OD can be estimated by precipitation tests using arbitrary OD* values of BCSs. Unless the Ca2+ value is dominant, the optimum blending of BCS can be determined by OD. Thus, it is concluded that the blending design of BCS is achieved using 8.46 OD, or 8.46 Rcv OD*, and the standard precipitation curve was defined in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: urease; standard precipitation of carbonates; optical density; viability of cells; blending design urease; standard precipitation of carbonates; optical density; viability of cells; blending design
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fukue, M.; Lechowicz, Z.; Fujimori, Y.; Emori, K.; Mulligan, C.N. Incorporation of Optical Density into the Blending Design for a Biocement Solution. Materials 2022, 15, 1951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051951

AMA Style

Fukue M, Lechowicz Z, Fujimori Y, Emori K, Mulligan CN. Incorporation of Optical Density into the Blending Design for a Biocement Solution. Materials. 2022; 15(5):1951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051951

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fukue, Masaharu, Zbigniew Lechowicz, Yuichi Fujimori, Kentaro Emori, and Catherine N. Mulligan. 2022. "Incorporation of Optical Density into the Blending Design for a Biocement Solution" Materials 15, no. 5: 1951. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051951

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop