Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Sn–Zn Alloys
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Phase Constitution and Microstructure of the Alloys before Corrosion
3.2. Hardness Measurements
3.3. Corrosion Experiments
3.4. Inspection of Alloy Surfaces after Corrosion
- The Sn–xZn alloys were found to be composed of Sn and Zn. The intensity of Zn peaks increased with increasing Zn concentration in the alloy. The Sn–9Zn alloy had a eutectic microstructure. The Sn–5Zn and Sn–15Zn alloys were found to be composed of dendritic (Zn) or (Sn) and eutectic.
- The binary Sn–Zn alloys were prone to pitting corrosion in NaCl solution. There was an intermediate decrease in current density observed at potentials from −1200 to −1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, indicating a passivation behavior. This transient decrease was, however, later followed by an abrupt increase of current density at potentials greater than −950 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. In the NaCl solution, the Sn–xZn alloys were subject to pitting corrosion immediately after their immersion in the electrolyte.
- The corrosion resistance of the Sn–Zn alloys increased with increasing Sn concentration. The corrosion potentials and corrosion rates of the Sn–Zn alloys in HCl were significantly higher compared to NaCl.
- The corrosion of the binary Sn–Zn alloys was found to take place by a galvanic mechanism. The (Sn) dendrites in the Sn–5Zn alloys were nobler compared to the eutectic. The eutectic played the role of an anode and was preferentially attacked by corrosion. In the Sn–15Zn alloy, the needle-like (Zn) was preferentially dissolved, leaving large cavities in the corroded alloy. The eutectic played the role of the local cathode in the Sn–15Zn alloy because of the higher Sn concentration. The eutectic was covered with a layer of corrosion products.
- The chemical composition of the corrosion products formed on the Sn–Zn alloys changed with the Zn weight fraction. Sn and the Sn–5Zn alloy formed reaction products rich in Sn. Alloys with a higher concentration of Zn formed corrosion products with a high Zn atomic fraction. The corrosion products formed on the surface of the binary Sn–Zn alloys in the HCl solution were prone to spallation. As a result of rapid growth, the corrosion products contained defects. The corrosion products formed in the acidic solution spalled off and left the underlying substrate prone to further corrosion.
- In the NaCl solution, the Sn–15Zn alloy had the lowest corrosion rate. In the HCl environment, however, the Sn–5Zn alloy was found to have the lowest corrosion rate. The eutectic solder had worse corrosion resistance in both environments. Although the eutectic Sn–9Zn alloy is suitable for soldering, one must consider its worse corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of Sn–Zn alloys in acidic environments can be increased by reducing the weight of zinc in the alloy. The hypoeutectic Sn–5Zn was more corrosion-resistant in HCl compared to the Sn–9Zn alloy.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Constituent||Chemical Composition [wt.%]|
|3.5 wt.% NaCl|
|[kg mol−1]||[kg m−3]||[mV vs. Ag/AgCl]||[mV vs. Ag/AgCl]||[A m−2]||[mm/year]|
|1 wt.% HCl|
|[kg mol−1]||[kg m−3]||[mV vs. Ag/AgCl]||[mV vs. Ag/AgCl]||[A m−2]||[mm/year]|
|Chemical Composition [at.%]|
|Sn||38.8 ± 13.2||-||14.9 ± 6.5||46.3 ± 7.3|
|Sn–5Zn||54.6 ± 14.7||2.6 ± 1.4||1.6 ± 0.9||41.4 ± 11.6|
|Sn–9Zn||10.8 ± 3.2||12.2 ± 2.9||4.7 ± 1.4||72.4 ± 1.1|
|Sn–15Zn||6.5 ± 4.0||16.7 ± 4.0||6.3 ± 1.7||70.5 ± 2.4|
|Zn||-||35.6 ± 6.0||4.5 ± 1.7||60.0 ± 5.1|
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Gerhátová, Ž.; Babincová, P.; Drienovský, M.; Pašák, M.; Černičková, I.; Ďuriška, L.; Havlík, R.; Palcut, M. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Sn–Zn Alloys. Materials 2022, 15, 7210. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207210
Gerhátová Ž, Babincová P, Drienovský M, Pašák M, Černičková I, Ďuriška L, Havlík R, Palcut M. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Sn–Zn Alloys. Materials. 2022; 15(20):7210. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207210Chicago/Turabian Style
Gerhátová, Žaneta, Paulína Babincová, Marián Drienovský, Matej Pašák, Ivona Černičková, Libor Ďuriška, Róbert Havlík, and Marián Palcut. 2022. "Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Sn–Zn Alloys" Materials 15, no. 20: 7210. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207210