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Article

An Overview of Nano Multilayers as Model Systems for Developing Nanoscale Microstructures

1
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
2
Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tomasz Czujko and Michael Stüber
Materials 2022, 15(1), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010382
Received: 16 November 2021 / Revised: 10 December 2021 / Accepted: 15 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Multilayers: Structures, Growth and Properties)
The microstructural transformations of binary nanometallic multilayers (NMMs) to equiaxed nanostructured materials were explored by characterizing a variety of nanoscale multilayer films. Four material systems of multilayer films, Hf-Ti, Ta-Hf, W-Cr, and Mo-Au, were synthesized by magnetron sputtering, heat treated at 1000 °C, and subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Binary systems were selected based on thermodynamic models predicting stable nanograin formation with similar global compositions around 20–30 at.%. All NMMs maintained nanocrystalline grain sizes after evolution into an equiaxed structure, where the systems with highly mobile incoherent interfaces or higher energy interfaces showed a more significant increase in grain size. Furthermore, varying segregation behaviors were observed, including grain boundary (GB) segregation, precipitation, and intermetallic formation depending on the material system selected. The pathway to tailored microstructures was found to be governed by key mechanisms and factors as determined by a film’s initial characteristics, including global and local composition, interface energy, layer structure, and material selection. This work presents a global evaluation of NMM systems and demonstrates their utility as foundation materials to promote tailored nanomaterials. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetron sputtering; nanometallic multilayers; interfaces; grain boundary energy; coherency; binary alloys; nanomaterials magnetron sputtering; nanometallic multilayers; interfaces; grain boundary energy; coherency; binary alloys; nanomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Appleget, C.D.; Riano, J.S.; Hodge, A.M. An Overview of Nano Multilayers as Model Systems for Developing Nanoscale Microstructures. Materials 2022, 15, 382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010382

AMA Style

Appleget CD, Riano JS, Hodge AM. An Overview of Nano Multilayers as Model Systems for Developing Nanoscale Microstructures. Materials. 2022; 15(1):382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010382

Chicago/Turabian Style

Appleget, Chelsea D., Juan Sebastian Riano, and Andrea M. Hodge. 2022. "An Overview of Nano Multilayers as Model Systems for Developing Nanoscale Microstructures" Materials 15, no. 1: 382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010382

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