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Article

Composites Based on Hydroxyapatite and Whey Protein Isolate for Applications in Bone Regeneration

1
Faculty of Materials Engineering and Physics, Department of Materials Science, Cracow University of Technology, 31-864 Krakow, Poland
2
Materials Science Institute (MSI), Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
3
Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
4
Department of Immunology and Infectious Biology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Arne Berner and Alessandro Pistone
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092317
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 29 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive ceramic with great potential for the regeneration of the skeletal system. However, its mechanical properties, especially its brittleness, limit its application. Therefore, in order to increase its ability to transmit stresses, it can be combined with a polymer phase, which increases its strength without eliminating the important aspect of bioactivity. The presented work focuses on obtaining organic–inorganic hydrogel materials based on whey protein isolate (WPI) reinforced with nano-HAp powder. The proportion of the ceramic phase was in the range of 0–15%. Firstly, a physicochemical analysis of the materials was performed using XRD, FT-IR and SEM. The hydrogel composites were subjected to swelling capacity measurements, potentiometric and conductivity analysis, and in vitro tests in four liquids: distilled water, Ringer’s fluid, artificial saliva, and simulated body fluid (SBF). The incubation results demonstrated the successful formation of new layers of apatite as a result of the interaction with the fluids. Additionally, the influence of the materials on the metabolic activity according to ISO 10993-5:2009 was evaluated by identifying direct contact cytotoxicity towards L-929 mouse fibroblasts, which served as a reference. Moreover, the stimulation of monocytes by hydrogels via the induction of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was investigated. The WPI/HAp composite hydrogels presented in this study therefore show great potential for use as novel bone substitutes. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; ceramic biomaterials; whey protein isolate; composites hydroxyapatite; ceramic biomaterials; whey protein isolate; composites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Słota, D.; Głąb, M.; Tyliszczak, B.; Douglas, T.E.L.; Rudnicka, K.; Miernik, K.; M. Urbaniak, M.; Rusek-Wala, P.; Sobczak-Kupiec, A. Composites Based on Hydroxyapatite and Whey Protein Isolate for Applications in Bone Regeneration. Materials 2021, 14, 2317. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092317

AMA Style

Słota D, Głąb M, Tyliszczak B, Douglas TEL, Rudnicka K, Miernik K, M. Urbaniak M, Rusek-Wala P, Sobczak-Kupiec A. Composites Based on Hydroxyapatite and Whey Protein Isolate for Applications in Bone Regeneration. Materials. 2021; 14(9):2317. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092317

Chicago/Turabian Style

Słota, Dagmara, Magdalena Głąb, Bożena Tyliszczak, Timothy E.L. Douglas, Karolina Rudnicka, Krzysztof Miernik, Mateusz M. Urbaniak, Paulina Rusek-Wala, and Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec. 2021. "Composites Based on Hydroxyapatite and Whey Protein Isolate for Applications in Bone Regeneration" Materials 14, no. 9: 2317. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092317

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