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Article

The Effect of Crystalline Waterproofing Admixtures on the Self-Healing and Permeability of Concrete

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Osijek, University Josip Juraj Strossmayer of Osijek, Vladimir Prelog Street 3, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, Andrija Kačić Miošić Street 26, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelo Marcello Tarantino
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081860
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 6 April 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 9 April 2021
This paper investigates the effectiveness of a specific crystalline waterproofing admixture (CWA) in concrete as a function of a water–binder ratio. Four concrete mixes with and without CWA were prepared; two of them with a water–binder ratio of 0.45 and two of them with a water–binder ratio of 0.55. Water permeability and compressive strength were tested on hardened concrete specimens and self-healing of cracks over time was observed. Cement paste and CWA paste were prepared to clarify the results obtained on the concrete specimens. SEM and EDS and XRD and FTIR were performed on the hardened pastes to explain the mechanism of CWA working. The results show that the addition of CWA had no significant effect on the compressive strength of the concrete, but reduced the water penetration depth in the concrete, and the reduction was more effective for mixes with lower water–binder ratio. Regarding the self-healing effect, it can be concluded that the addition of CWA improves the crack healing in concrete, but the efficiency of self-healing is highly dependent on the initial crack width. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of water penetration depth and crack healing in concrete can be explained by different mechanisms; one is creation of the CSH gel from unreacted clinker grains, then formation carbonate, and additional mechanism is gel formation (highly expansive Mg-rich hydro-carbonate) from magnesium based additives. The presence of sodium silicate, which would transform into carbonate/bicarbonate, also cannot be excluded. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete; crystalline admixture; self-healing; permeability; compressive strength; SEM; EDS; XRD; FTIR concrete; crystalline admixture; self-healing; permeability; compressive strength; SEM; EDS; XRD; FTIR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gojević, A.; Ducman, V.; Netinger Grubeša, I.; Baričević, A.; Banjad Pečur, I. The Effect of Crystalline Waterproofing Admixtures on the Self-Healing and Permeability of Concrete. Materials 2021, 14, 1860. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081860

AMA Style

Gojević A, Ducman V, Netinger Grubeša I, Baričević A, Banjad Pečur I. The Effect of Crystalline Waterproofing Admixtures on the Self-Healing and Permeability of Concrete. Materials. 2021; 14(8):1860. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081860

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gojević, Anita, Vilma Ducman, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Ana Baričević, and Ivana Banjad Pečur. 2021. "The Effect of Crystalline Waterproofing Admixtures on the Self-Healing and Permeability of Concrete" Materials 14, no. 8: 1860. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081860

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