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Article

Archaeological and Chemical Investigation on Mortars and Bricks from a Necropolis in Braga, Northwest of Portugal

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GeoBioTec—GeoBioSciences, GeoTechnologies and GeoEngineering Research Unit, Geosciences Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Lab2PT—Landscapes, Heritage and Territory Laboratory Research Unit, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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RISCO—Research Centre for Risks and Sustainability in Construction, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Žiga Šmit and Eva Menart
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216290
Received: 11 September 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 22 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Material Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
This investigation intends to study and characterize the mortars and bricks from walls and floors used in the funerary nucleus of the archaeological site of Dr. Gonçalo Sampaio Street (Braga, Portugal), associated with the Via XVII necropolis of the Bracara Augusta Roman city. The diversity of the funeral structures and their exceptional state of conservation make this sector of the necropolis an unprecedented case and a reference site in the archaeology of Braga, a determinant for its conservation and musealization. Nineteen mortars samples were analysed by X-ray Fluorescence. The results showed clear chemical composition differences among coating and floor mortars (CFM), masonry mortars (MM) and bricks (B) groups of samples. The chemical affinity between CFM from the V to IV centuries, CFM from the IV to V centuries, MM from brick walls (IV–V centuries), MM from stone walls (V–VII centuries) and B from the IV to V centuries samples were confirmed by statistical analyses. Their composition was distinctly related to the use of different raw materials, according to their chronological context; in mortars, according to their function in the structures; and in some samples, from contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: mortars; roman bricks; Bracara Augusta; necropolis; funerary nucleus; archaeological sites; chemical characterization mortars; roman bricks; Bracara Augusta; necropolis; funerary nucleus; archaeological sites; chemical characterization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fragata, A.; Candeias, C.; Ribeiro, J.; Braga, C.; Fontes, L.; Velosa, A.; Rocha, F. Archaeological and Chemical Investigation on Mortars and Bricks from a Necropolis in Braga, Northwest of Portugal. Materials 2021, 14, 6290. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216290

AMA Style

Fragata A, Candeias C, Ribeiro J, Braga C, Fontes L, Velosa A, Rocha F. Archaeological and Chemical Investigation on Mortars and Bricks from a Necropolis in Braga, Northwest of Portugal. Materials. 2021; 14(21):6290. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fragata, Ana, Carla Candeias, Jorge Ribeiro, Cristina Braga, Luís Fontes, Ana Velosa, and Fernando Rocha. 2021. "Archaeological and Chemical Investigation on Mortars and Bricks from a Necropolis in Braga, Northwest of Portugal" Materials 14, no. 21: 6290. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216290

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