Evaluation of Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fibrous Geopolymer Composites
2. Experiential Study
2.1. Raw Materials
- GGBS is procured from Astrra chemicals, Chennai, India and its chemical composition were (%): CaO—36.77, SiO2—30.97, Al2O3—17.41, MgO—9.01, SO3—1.82, Fe2O3—1.03, Na2O—0.69, K2O—0.46. The specific gravity and fineness were 2.9 and >350 m2/kg, respectively.
- The fine aggregate used was natural river sand obtained near Thanjavur, India with the specific gravity of 2.65 and fineness modulus of 2.41, in accordance with IS: 383-2016 .
- A 12.5 mm crushed granite gravel was used as coarse aggregate as per IS: 383-2016 . Coarse aggregate obtained locally in Thanjavur, India which had a 0.56% water absorption, 2.69 specific gravity, and 1700 kg/m3 apparent bulk density.
- The sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) liquid were used to prepare a 12-molarity solution and these materials were procured from Astrra chemicals, Chennai, India. The flakes of NaOH were dissolved in distilled water to evade the effect of unidentified contaminate in the mixing water. The mix of NaOH was prepared 24 h before casting.
- A new 5D hooked end steel fiber (SF), glass fiber (GF) and polypropylene fibers (PF) were utilized and their properties are shown in Table 1. The appearance of three used fibers is shown in Figure 1. The main reason for adding micro polypropylene and glass fibers is to control the micro cracks effectively. Long steel fibers usually exhibit good bonding between the matrix and fiber and this becomes the controlling criterion for arresting macro-cracks. The hybrid combination of these fibers leads to interconnected micro-cracks and macro cracks in the fracture region, resulting in an effective crack control during the crack proliferations.
2.2. Specimen Preparation
2.3. Experimental Setup
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Influence of Fiber Type and Fiber Hybridization
3.2. Influence of Notch Depth
3.3. Influence of Test Type
- All fibrous specimens retained noticeably higher fracture toughness compared to plain specimens. A percentage development in the fracture toughness, compared to the reference mixture, of 13.6% to 69.1% was obtained for disc fibrous specimens, while that of fibrous cube specimens was higher than the reference specimens by 11.4% to 86.7%. This performance is attributed to the fibers crack bridging capability, which results in higher cracking and ultimate loads and more ductile behavior leading to tougher behavior with higher absorbed energy.
- The steel mono-fibrous mixture (S1.6) and the hybrid fibrous one with steel and glass fibers (S1.3G0.3) were the mixtures with the highest fracture toughness values in both tests. However, the percentage differences between the two mixtures were limited to 4.4% to 10.8%, which reflects the crucial and superior effect of the used steel fibers compared to the synthetic fibers. This result is attributed to the longer steel fiber and its higher strength and modulus of elasticity compared to synthetic fibers.
- Regardless of the mixture type and test type, the fracture toughness exhibited an approximately linear decrease with the increase of notch depth. For instance, the fracture toughness values of the discs made from the mixture S1.6 were recorded to be 52.0, 46.5 and 42.2 MPa√mm for notch depth/diameter ratios of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. This trend of decrease is attributed to the increases in notch length, where deeper notches mean shorter fracture paths, which accelerate the failure of the tested specimens.
- Double notched cube specimens retained apparently higher fracture toughness compared to the Brazilian notched disc specimens. The ratio of normalized fracture toughness of the disc specimens to that of their corresponding cube specimens ranged from 0.37 to 0.47. This result can be attributed to the concentration of stresses along one defined path in the disc specimens compared to the multi-path stresses in cube specimens. In addition, the accompanied tensile stresses in disc specimens may lead to mode I fracture before the designed mode II fracture.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Tensile Strength (MPa)||360||1400||1050|
|S. No||Mix Id||GGBS (kg/m3)||FA (kg/m3)||CA (kg/m3)||W/B Ratio||NaOH (kg/m3)||Na2SiO3 (kg/m3)||SF (%)||PP (%)||GF (%)|
Brazilian center notched disc
|KIIe = −|
|t = 60 mm, R = 75 mm,|
|α = Notch inclination angle = 30°|
|A0 = sin 2α, A2 = 2(sin 4α − sin 2α), A4 = 3(sin 6α − 2sin 4α)|
|A6 = 4(sin 8α − 3sin 6α), A8 = 5(sin 10α − 4sin 8α)|
|l = 45, 60, 75 mm|
Double notched cube test
|KIIC = PQ ()1/2|
|Cube 150 mm|
|l or a = 45, 60, 75|
|w = 150|
|B = w − l|
|Mix Id||Double Notched Cube Test||Brazilian Center Notched Disc|
|l = 45 mm||l = 60 mm||l = 75 mm||l = 45 mm||l = 60 mm||l = 75 mm|
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Abid, S.R.; Murali, G.; Amran, M.; Vatin, N.; Fediuk, R.; Karelina, M. Evaluation of Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fibrous Geopolymer Composites. Materials 2021, 14, 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020349
Abid SR, Murali G, Amran M, Vatin N, Fediuk R, Karelina M. Evaluation of Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fibrous Geopolymer Composites. Materials. 2021; 14(2):349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020349Chicago/Turabian Style
Abid, Sallal R., Gunasekaran Murali, Mugahed Amran, Nikolai Vatin, Roman Fediuk, and Maria Karelina. 2021. "Evaluation of Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fibrous Geopolymer Composites" Materials 14, no. 2: 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020349