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Article

Sensitivity of Ultrasonic Coda Wave Interferometry to Material Damage—Observations from a Virtual Concrete Lab

1
Fraunhofer IEG, Fraunhofer Research Institution for Energy Infrastructures and Geothermal Systems, Am Hochschulcampus 1, 44801 Bochum, Germany
2
Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany
3
Reservoir Engineering and Rock Physics, Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Am Hochschulcampus 1, 44801 Bochum, Germany
4
Institute for Structural Mechanics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christoph Gehlen and Christian Große
Materials 2021, 14(14), 4033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144033
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 19 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete and Concrete Structures Monitored by Ultrasound)
Ultrasonic measurements are used in civil engineering for structural health monitoring of concrete infrastructures. The late portion of the ultrasonic wavefield, the coda, is sensitive to small changes in the elastic moduli of the material. Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) correlates these small changes in the coda with the wavefield recorded in intact, or unperturbed, concrete specimen to reveal the amount of velocity change that occurred. CWI has the potential to detect localized damages and global velocity reductions alike. In this study, the sensitivity of CWI to different types of concrete mesostructures and their damage levels is investigated numerically. Realistic numerical concrete models of concrete specimen are generated, and damage evolution is simulated using the discrete element method. In the virtual concrete lab, the simulated ultrasonic wavefield is propagated from one transducer using a realistic source signal and recorded at a second transducer. Different damage scenarios reveal a different slope in the decorrelation of waveforms with the observed reduction in velocities in the material. Finally, the impact and possible generalizations of the findings are discussed, and recommendations are given for a potential application of CWI in concrete at structural scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: damage detection; concrete-like structures; coda waves; ultrasound; wave propagation; discrete element modeling; sensitivity study damage detection; concrete-like structures; coda waves; ultrasound; wave propagation; discrete element modeling; sensitivity study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Finger, C.; Saydak, L.; Vu, G.; Timothy, J.J.; Meschke, G.; Saenger, E.H. Sensitivity of Ultrasonic Coda Wave Interferometry to Material Damage—Observations from a Virtual Concrete Lab. Materials 2021, 14, 4033. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144033

AMA Style

Finger C, Saydak L, Vu G, Timothy JJ, Meschke G, Saenger EH. Sensitivity of Ultrasonic Coda Wave Interferometry to Material Damage—Observations from a Virtual Concrete Lab. Materials. 2021; 14(14):4033. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Finger, Claudia, Leslie Saydak, Giao Vu, Jithender J. Timothy, Günther Meschke, and Erik H. Saenger 2021. "Sensitivity of Ultrasonic Coda Wave Interferometry to Material Damage—Observations from a Virtual Concrete Lab" Materials 14, no. 14: 4033. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144033

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