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Review

Commercial Bone Grafts Claimed as an Alternative to Autografts: Current Trends for Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics

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Reconstructive Orthopaedic Surgery and Innovative Techniques-Musculoskeletal Tissue Bank, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Laboratory of Microbiology and GMP Quality Control, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Luis Gómez Ribelles
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123290
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
In the last twenty years, due to an increasing medical and market demand for orthopaedic implants, several grafting options have been developed. However, when alternative bone augmentation materials mimicking autografts are searched on the market, commercially available products may be grouped into three main categories: cellular bone matrices, growth factor enhanced bone grafts, and peptide enhanced xeno-hybrid bone grafts. Firstly, to obtain data for this review, the search engines Google and Bing were employed to acquire information from reports or website portfolios of important competitors in the global bone graft market. Secondly, bibliographic databases such as Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were also employed to analyse data from preclinical/clinical studies performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of each product released on the market. Here, we discuss several products in terms of osteogenic/osteoinductive/osteoconductive properties, safety, efficacy, and side effects, as well as regulatory issues and costs. Although both positive and negative results were reported in clinical applications for each class of products, to date, peptide enhanced xeno-hybrid bone grafts may represent the best choice in terms of risk/benefit ratio. Nevertheless, more prospective and controlled studies are needed before approval for routine clinical use. View Full-Text
Keywords: autograft alternatives; commercial bone allografts; cellular bone matrices; growth factors; bioactive peptides; xeno-hybrid bone grafts autograft alternatives; commercial bone allografts; cellular bone matrices; growth factors; bioactive peptides; xeno-hybrid bone grafts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Govoni, M.; Vivarelli, L.; Mazzotta, A.; Stagni, C.; Maso, A.; Dallari, D. Commercial Bone Grafts Claimed as an Alternative to Autografts: Current Trends for Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics. Materials 2021, 14, 3290. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123290

AMA Style

Govoni M, Vivarelli L, Mazzotta A, Stagni C, Maso A, Dallari D. Commercial Bone Grafts Claimed as an Alternative to Autografts: Current Trends for Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics. Materials. 2021; 14(12):3290. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Govoni, Marco, Leonardo Vivarelli, Alessandro Mazzotta, Cesare Stagni, Alessandra Maso, and Dante Dallari. 2021. "Commercial Bone Grafts Claimed as an Alternative to Autografts: Current Trends for Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics" Materials 14, no. 12: 3290. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123290

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