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Mineralization of Titanium Surfaces: Biomimetic Implants

Bioengineering Institute of Technology, International University of Catalonia, 08195-Sant Cugat del Vallés, 08017 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group (BBT), Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), 08019 Barcelona, Spain
Barcelona Research Center in Multiscale Science and Engineering, Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), 08019 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Seville, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Noshir S. Pesika
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2879;
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofunctionalization of Metallic Biomaterials)
The surface modification by the formation of apatitic compounds, such as hydroxyapatite, improves biological fixation implants at an early stage after implantation. The structure, which is identical to mineral content of human bone, has the potential to be osteoinductive and/or osteoconductive materials. These calcium phosphates provoke the action of the cell signals that interact with the surface after implantation in order to quickly regenerate bone in contact with dental implants with mineral coating. A new generation of calcium phosphate coatings applied on the titanium surfaces of dental implants using laser, plasma-sprayed, laser-ablation, or electrochemical deposition processes produces that response. However, these modifications produce failures and bad responses in long-term behavior. Calcium phosphates films result in heterogeneous degradation due to the lack of crystallinity of the phosphates with a fast dissolution; conversely, the film presents cracks, which produce fractures in the coating. New thermochemical treatments have been developed to obtain biomimetic surfaces with calcium phosphate compounds that overcome the aforementioned problems. Among them, the chemical modification using biomineralization treatments has been extended to other materials, including composites, bioceramics, biopolymers, peptides, organic molecules, and other metallic materials, showing the potential for growing a calcium phosphate layer under biomimetic conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: mineralization; titanium; dental implants; bone bonding; apatite; biomimetic surface mineralization; titanium; dental implants; bone bonding; apatite; biomimetic surface
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gil, J.; Manero, J.M.; Ruperez, E.; Velasco-Ortega, E.; Jiménez-Guerra, A.; Ortiz-García, I.; Monsalve-Guil, L. Mineralization of Titanium Surfaces: Biomimetic Implants. Materials 2021, 14, 2879.

AMA Style

Gil J, Manero JM, Ruperez E, Velasco-Ortega E, Jiménez-Guerra A, Ortiz-García I, Monsalve-Guil L. Mineralization of Titanium Surfaces: Biomimetic Implants. Materials. 2021; 14(11):2879.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gil, Javier, Jose M. Manero, Elisa Ruperez, Eugenio Velasco-Ortega, Alvaro Jiménez-Guerra, Iván Ortiz-García, and Loreto Monsalve-Guil. 2021. "Mineralization of Titanium Surfaces: Biomimetic Implants" Materials 14, no. 11: 2879.

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