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Article

Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes by Argovit™ AgNPs from Healthy and Diabetic Donors: An In Vitro Study

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Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico
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Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Unidad Valle Dorado, Ensenada 22890, Baja California, Mexico
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Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Unidad Regional Los Mochis, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Los Mochis 81223, Sinaloa, Mexico
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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center (CNyN), National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 58089, Distrito Federal, Mexico
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Research School of Chemistry & Applied Biomedical Sciences, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Agnieszka J. Nowak
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112792
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
The use of nanomaterials is becoming increasingly widespread, leading to substantial research focused on nanomedicine. Nevertheless, the lack of complete toxicity profiles limits nanomaterials’ uses, despite their remarkable diagnostic and therapeutic results on in vitro and in vivo models. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), particularly Argovit™, have shown microbicidal, virucidal, and antitumoral effects. Among the first-line toxicity tests is the hemolysis assay. Here, the hemolytic effect of Argovit™ AgNPs on erythrocytes from one healthy donor (HDE) and one diabetic donor (DDE) is evaluated by the hemolysis assay against AgNO3. The results showed that Argovit™, in concentrations ≤24 µg/mL of metallic silver, did not show a hemolytic effect on the HDE or DDE. On the contrary, AgNO3 at the same concentration of silver ions produces more than 10% hemolysis in both the erythrocyte types. In all the experimental conditions assessed, the DDE was shown to be more prone to hemolysis than the HDE elicited by Ag+ ions or AgNPs, but much more evident with Ag+ ions. The results show that Argovit™ is the least hemolytic compared with the other twenty-two AgNP formulations previously reported, probably due to the polymer mass used to stabilize the Argovit™ formulation. The results obtained provide relevant information that contributes to obtaining a comprehensive toxicological profile to design safe and effective AgNP formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: in vitro hemolysis; silver nanoparticles; diabetic erythrocytes in vitro hemolysis; silver nanoparticles; diabetic erythrocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Luna-Vázquez-Gómez, R.; Arellano-García, M.E.; García-Ramos, J.C.; Radilla-Chávez, P.; Salas-Vargas, D.S.; Casillas-Figueroa, F.; Ruiz-Ruiz, B.; Bogdanchikova, N.; Pestryakov, A. Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes by Argovit™ AgNPs from Healthy and Diabetic Donors: An In Vitro Study. Materials 2021, 14, 2792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112792

AMA Style

Luna-Vázquez-Gómez R, Arellano-García ME, García-Ramos JC, Radilla-Chávez P, Salas-Vargas DS, Casillas-Figueroa F, Ruiz-Ruiz B, Bogdanchikova N, Pestryakov A. Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes by Argovit™ AgNPs from Healthy and Diabetic Donors: An In Vitro Study. Materials. 2021; 14(11):2792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112792

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luna-Vázquez-Gómez, Roberto, María E. Arellano-García, Juan C. García-Ramos, Patricia Radilla-Chávez, David S. Salas-Vargas, Francisco Casillas-Figueroa, Balam Ruiz-Ruiz, Nina Bogdanchikova, and Alexey Pestryakov. 2021. "Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes by Argovit™ AgNPs from Healthy and Diabetic Donors: An In Vitro Study" Materials 14, no. 11: 2792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112792

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