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Harnessing Multi-Photon Absorption to Produce Three-Dimensional Magnetic Structures at the Nanoscale

School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH, UK
Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle NE1 8ST, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(3), 761;
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Three-Dimensional (3D) Nano Magnetism and Magnetic Materials)
Three-dimensional nanostructured magnetic materials have recently been the topic of intense interest since they provide access to a host of new physical phenomena. Examples include new spin textures that exhibit topological protection, magnetochiral effects and novel ultrafast magnetic phenomena such as the spin-Cherenkov effect. Two-photon lithography is a powerful methodology that is capable of realising 3D polymer nanostructures on the scale of 100 nm. Combining this with postprocessing and deposition methodologies allows 3D magnetic nanostructures of arbitrary geometry to be produced. In this article, the physics of two-photon lithography is first detailed, before reviewing the studies to date that have exploited this fabrication route. The article then moves on to consider how non-linear optical techniques and post-processing solutions can be used to realise structures with a feature size below 100 nm, before comparing two-photon lithography with other direct write methodologies and providing a discussion on future developments. View Full-Text
Keywords: two-photon lithography; magnetism; nanoscale; three-dimensional; nanostructures two-photon lithography; magnetism; nanoscale; three-dimensional; nanostructures
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Hunt, M.; Taverne, M.; Askey, J.; May, A.; Van Den Berg, A.; Ho, Y.-L.D.; Rarity, J.; Ladak, S. Harnessing Multi-Photon Absorption to Produce Three-Dimensional Magnetic Structures at the Nanoscale. Materials 2020, 13, 761.

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