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Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects

by 1,2,3, 3, 1,* and 2,*
Institute of Marine Biomedicine, Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen 518055, China
State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(21), 5049;
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 6 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
The barrier layer in Cu technology is essential to prevent Cu from diffusing into the dielectric layer at high temperatures; therefore, it must have a high stability and good adhesion to both Cu and the dielectric layer. In the past three decades, tantalum/tantalum nitride (Ta/TaN) has been widely used as an inter-layer to separate the dielectric layer and the Cu. However, to fulfill the demand for continuous down-scaling of the Cu technology node, traditional materials and technical processes are being challenged. Direct electrochemical deposition of Cu on top of Ta/TaN is not realistic, due to its high resistivity. Therefore, pre-deposition of a Cu seed layer by physical vapor deposition (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is necessary, but the non-uniformity of the Cu seed layer has a devastating effect on the defect-free fill of modern sub-20 or even sub-10 nm Cu technology nodes. New Cu diffusion barrier materials having ultra-thin size, high resistivity and stability are needed for the successful super-fill of trenches at the nanometer scale. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in the development of Cu diffusion-proof materials, including metals, metal alloys, self-assembled molecular layers (SAMs), two-dimensional (2D) materials and high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Also, challenges are highlighted and future research directions are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cu diffusion barrier; platinum group metals; 2D materials; self-assembled monolayers; high entropy alloys Cu diffusion barrier; platinum group metals; 2D materials; self-assembled monolayers; high entropy alloys
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Tian, Y.; Teng, C.; Cao, H. Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects. Materials 2020, 13, 5049.

AMA Style

Li Z, Tian Y, Teng C, Cao H. Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects. Materials. 2020; 13(21):5049.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Zhi; Tian, Ye; Teng, Chao; Cao, Hai. 2020. "Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects" Materials 13, no. 21: 5049.

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