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Review

Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects

by 1,2,3, 3, 1,* and 2,*
1
Institute of Marine Biomedicine, Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen 518055, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
3
National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(21), 5049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13215049
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 6 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
The barrier layer in Cu technology is essential to prevent Cu from diffusing into the dielectric layer at high temperatures; therefore, it must have a high stability and good adhesion to both Cu and the dielectric layer. In the past three decades, tantalum/tantalum nitride (Ta/TaN) has been widely used as an inter-layer to separate the dielectric layer and the Cu. However, to fulfill the demand for continuous down-scaling of the Cu technology node, traditional materials and technical processes are being challenged. Direct electrochemical deposition of Cu on top of Ta/TaN is not realistic, due to its high resistivity. Therefore, pre-deposition of a Cu seed layer by physical vapor deposition (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is necessary, but the non-uniformity of the Cu seed layer has a devastating effect on the defect-free fill of modern sub-20 or even sub-10 nm Cu technology nodes. New Cu diffusion barrier materials having ultra-thin size, high resistivity and stability are needed for the successful super-fill of trenches at the nanometer scale. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in the development of Cu diffusion-proof materials, including metals, metal alloys, self-assembled molecular layers (SAMs), two-dimensional (2D) materials and high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Also, challenges are highlighted and future research directions are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cu diffusion barrier; platinum group metals; 2D materials; self-assembled monolayers; high entropy alloys Cu diffusion barrier; platinum group metals; 2D materials; self-assembled monolayers; high entropy alloys
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Tian, Y.; Teng, C.; Cao, H. Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects. Materials 2020, 13, 5049. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13215049

AMA Style

Li Z, Tian Y, Teng C, Cao H. Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects. Materials. 2020; 13(21):5049. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13215049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Zhi; Tian, Ye; Teng, Chao; Cao, Hai. 2020. "Recent Advances in Barrier Layer of Cu Interconnects" Materials 13, no. 21: 5049. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13215049

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