Biosensors are very important for detecting target molecules with high accuracy, selectivity, and signal-to-noise ratio. Biosensors developed using biomolecules such as enzymes or nucleic acids which were used as the probes for detecting the target molecules were studied widely due to their advantages. For example, enzymes can react with certain molecules rapidly and selectively, and nucleic acids can bind to their complementary sequences delicately in nanoscale. In addition, biomolecules can be immobilized and conjugated with other materials by surface modification through the recombination or introduction of chemical linkers. However, these biosensors have some essential limitations because of instability and low signal strength derived from the detector biomolecules. Functional nanomaterials offer a solution to overcome these limitations of biomolecules by hybridization with or replacing the biomolecules. Functional nanomaterials can give advantages for developing biosensors including the increment of electrochemical signals, retention of activity of biomolecules for a long-term period, and extension of investigating tools by using its unique plasmonic and optical properties. Up to now, various nanomaterials were synthesized and reported, from widely used gold nanoparticles to novel nanomaterials that are either carbon-based or transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based. These nanomaterials were utilized either by themselves or by hybridization with other nanomaterials to develop highly sensitive biosensors. In this review, highly sensitive biosensors developed from excellent novel nanomaterials are discussed through a selective overview of recently reported researches. We also suggest creative breakthroughs for the development of next-generation biosensors using the novel nanomaterials for detecting harmful target molecules with high sensitivity.
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