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Addition of Graphene Oxide in Different Stages of the Synthesis of Waterborne Polyurethane-Urea Adhesives and Its Influence on Their Structure, Thermal, Viscoelastic and Adhesion Properties

Adhesion and Adhesives Laboratory, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain
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Materials 2020, 13(13), 2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132899
Received: 6 June 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure–Property Relationship of Polymeric Materials)
In this study, 0.04 wt % graphene oxide (GO) was added in different stages (before and after prepolymer formation, and during water addition) of the synthesis of waterborne polyurethane-urea dispersions (PUDs) prepared by using the acetone method. The structural, thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, surface and adhesion properties of the polyurethane-ureas (PUUs) containing 0.04 wt % GO were studied. The addition of GO before and after prepolymer formation produced covalent bonds between the GO sheets and the NCO groups of the isocyanate, whereas the GO sheets were trapped between the polyurethane chains when added during water addition step. As a consequence, depending on the stage of the PUD synthesis in which GO was added, the degree of micro-phase separation between the hard and soft segments changed differently. The addition of GO before prepolymer formation changed more efficiently the polyurethane-urea structure, i.e., the covalently bonded GO sheets disturbed the interactions between the hard segments causing lower percentage of free urethane groups, higher crystallinity, lower storage modulus, higher yield stress and T-peel strength. The interactions between the GO sheets and the polymeric chains have been evidenced by plate-plate rheology, thermal gravimetric analysis and spectroscopy. On the other hand, physical interactions between GO and the polyurethane-urea chains were produced when GO was added in water during the synthesis, i.e., GO was acting as a nanofiller, which justified the improved mechanical properties and high lap-shear strength, but poor T-peel strength. View Full-Text
Keywords: waterborne polyurethane-urea adhesive; graphene oxide; structure-property relationship; adhesion; thermal properties; viscoelastic properties waterborne polyurethane-urea adhesive; graphene oxide; structure-property relationship; adhesion; thermal properties; viscoelastic properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tounici, A.; Martín-Martínez, J.M. Addition of Graphene Oxide in Different Stages of the Synthesis of Waterborne Polyurethane-Urea Adhesives and Its Influence on Their Structure, Thermal, Viscoelastic and Adhesion Properties. Materials 2020, 13, 2899.

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