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Article

Characterization of Ablated Bone and Muscle for Long-Pulsed Laser Ablation in Dry and Wet Conditions

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Biomedical Laser and Optics Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
2
Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 3602 Thun, Switzerland
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Bio-Inspired RObots for MEDicine-Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
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Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
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Center for medical Image Analysis and Navigation, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081338
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Laser Technologies and Applications)
Smart laser technologies are desired that can accurately cut and characterize tissues, such as bone and muscle, with minimal thermal damage and fast healing. Using a long-pulsed laser with a 0.5–10 ms pulse width at a wavelength of 1.07 µm, we investigated the optimum laser parameters for producing craters with minimal thermal damage under both wet and dry conditions. In different tissues (bone and muscle), we analyzed craters of various morphologies, depths, and volumes. We used a two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test to investigate whether there are significant differences in the ablation efficiency in wet versus dry conditions at each level of the pulse energy. We found that bone and muscle tissue ablated under wet conditions produced fewer cracks and less thermal damage around the craters than under dry conditions. In contrast to muscle, the ablation efficiency of bone under wet conditions was not higher than under dry conditions. Tissue differentiation was carried out based on measured acoustic waves. A Principal Component Analysis of the measured acoustic waves and Mahalanobis distances were used to differentiate bone and muscle under wet conditions. Bone and muscle ablated in wet conditions demonstrated a classification error of less than 6.66% and 3.33%, when measured by a microphone and a fiber Bragg grating, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustic tissue response; laser ablation; tissue differentiation; influence of ablation condition acoustic tissue response; laser ablation; tissue differentiation; influence of ablation condition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguendon Kenhagho, H.; Shevchik, S.; Saeidi, F.; Faivre, N.; Meylan, B.; Rauter, G.; Guzman, R.; Cattin, P.; Wasmer, K.; Zam, A. Characterization of Ablated Bone and Muscle for Long-Pulsed Laser Ablation in Dry and Wet Conditions. Materials 2019, 12, 1338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081338

AMA Style

Nguendon Kenhagho H, Shevchik S, Saeidi F, Faivre N, Meylan B, Rauter G, Guzman R, Cattin P, Wasmer K, Zam A. Characterization of Ablated Bone and Muscle for Long-Pulsed Laser Ablation in Dry and Wet Conditions. Materials. 2019; 12(8):1338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081338

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nguendon Kenhagho, Hervé, Sergey Shevchik, Fatemeh Saeidi, Neige Faivre, Bastian Meylan, Georg Rauter, Raphael Guzman, Philippe Cattin, Kilian Wasmer, and Azhar Zam. 2019. "Characterization of Ablated Bone and Muscle for Long-Pulsed Laser Ablation in Dry and Wet Conditions" Materials 12, no. 8: 1338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081338

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