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Materials 2019, 12(7), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071183

Reduction Temperature-Dependent Nanoscale Morphological Transformation and Electrical Conductivity of Silicate Glass Microchannel Plate

Key Laboratory of China Building Materials Industry for Special Photoelectric Materials, Institute of Special Glass Fiber and Optoelectronic Functional Materials, China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024, China
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Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Situ TEM and AFM for Investigation of Materials)
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Abstract

Lead silicate glasses are fundamental materials to a microchannel plate (MCP), which is a two dimensional array of a microscopic channel charge particle multiplier. Hydrogen reduction is the core stage to determine the electrical conductivity of lead silicate glass MCP multipliers. The nanoscale morphologies and microscopic potential distributions of silicate glass at different reduction temperatures were investigated via atomic force microscope (AFM) and Kelvin force microscopy (KFM). We found that the bulk resistance of MCPs ballooned exponentially with the spacing of conducting islands. Moreover, bulk resistance and the spacing of conducting islands both have the BiDoseResp trend dependence on the hydrogen reduction temperature. Elements composition and valence states of lead silicate glass were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the conducting island was an assemblage of the Pb atom originated from the reduction of Pb2+ and Pb4+. Thus, this showed the important influence of the hydrogen temperature and nanoscale morphological transformation on modulating the physical effects of MCPs, and opened up new possibilities to characterize the nanoscale electronic performance of multiphase silicate glass. View Full-Text
Keywords: microchannel plate; microscopic potential distribution; Kelvin force microscopy; nanoscale morphological transformation; bulk resistance microchannel plate; microscopic potential distribution; Kelvin force microscopy; nanoscale morphological transformation; bulk resistance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cai, H.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, L.; Liu, H.; Li, Q.; Bo, T.; Zhou, D.; Wang, C.; Lian, J. Reduction Temperature-Dependent Nanoscale Morphological Transformation and Electrical Conductivity of Silicate Glass Microchannel Plate. Materials 2019, 12, 1183.

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