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Open AccessArticle

Light-Emitting Porphyrin Derivative Obtained from a Subproduct of the Cashew Nut Shell Liquid: A Promising Material for OLED Applications

Laboratory of Products and Process Technology (LPT), Organic and Inorganic Chemistry Department, Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Campus do Pici, Fortaleza-CE 60440-900, Brazil
Molecular Optoelectronic Laboratory (LOEM), Physics Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro-RJ 22451-900, Brazil
Materials Theory Division, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden
Institute of Exact and Natural Sciences - ICEN, University of International Integration of Afro-Brazilian Lusophony, Redenção-CE 62790-000, Brazil
Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Permanent address: Department of Physics, University of Atlantic, Puerto Colombia, Atlántico, Colombia.
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1063;
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Eco-Friendly Nanotechnology)
In this work, the meso-tetra[4-(2-(3-n-pentadecylphenoxy)ethoxy]phenylporphyrin (H2P), obtained from the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), and its zinc (ZnP) and copper (CuP) metallic complexes, were applied as emitting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). These compounds were characterized via optical and electrochemical analysis and the electroluminescent properties of the device have been studied. We performed a cyclic voltammetry analysis to determine the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) energy levels for the porphyrins, in order to select the proper materials to assemble the device. H2P and ZnP presented fluorescence emission band in the red region, from 601 nm to 718 nm. Moreover, we verified that the introduction of bulky substituents hinders the π–π stacking, favoring the emission in the film. In addition, the strongest emitter, ZnP, presented a threshold voltage of 4 V and the maximum irradiance of 10 μW cm−2 with a current density (J) of 15 mA cm−2 at 10 V. The CuP complex showed to be a favorable material for the design of OLEDs in the infrared. These results suggest that the porphyrins derived from a renewable source, such as CNSL, is a promising material to be used in organic optoelectronic devices such as OLEDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cashew nut shell liquid; porphyrins; photoluminescence; electroluminescence; OLEDs cashew nut shell liquid; porphyrins; photoluminescence; electroluminescence; OLEDs
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de Amorim Lima, N.M.; Camargo Avila, H.J.; do Nascimento Marchiori, C.F.; Gondim Sampaio, S.; Ferreira Mota, J.P.; Gomes Pereira Ribeiro, V.; da Silva Clemente, C.; Mele, G.; Cremona, M.; Mazzetto, S.E. Light-Emitting Porphyrin Derivative Obtained from a Subproduct of the Cashew Nut Shell Liquid: A Promising Material for OLED Applications. Materials 2019, 12, 1063.

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