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Materials 2019, 12(5), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050812

Functional Fibronectin Adsorption on Aptamer-Doped Chitosan Modulates Cell Morphology by Integrin-Mediated Pathway

1
Centro Universitario di Odontoiatria, Università degli Studi di Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti e del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 59/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
4
IMEM-CNR National Research Council, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract

A decisive step in cell-biomaterial interaction is represented by the adsorption of proteins at the interface, whose fine control may be useful to trigger proper cell response. To this purpose, we can selectively control protein adsorption on biomaterials by means of aptamers. Aptamers selected to recognize fibronectin dramatically enhance chitosan ability to promote cell proliferation and adhesion, but the underlying biological mechanism remains unknown. We supposed that aptamers contributed to ameliorate the adsorption of fibronectin in an advantageous geometrical conformation for cells, thus regulating their morphology by the proper activation of the integrin-mediated pathway. We investigated this possibility by culturing epithelial cells on chitosan enriched with increasing doses of aptamers in the presence or in the absence of cytoskeleton pharmacological inhibitors. Our results showed that aptamers control cell morphology in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.0001). Simultaneously, when the inhibition of actin polymerization was induced, the control of cell morphology was attenuated (p < 0.0001), while no differences were detected when cells contractility was challenged (p > 0.05). Altogether, our data provide evidence that aptamers contribute to control fibronectin adsorption on biomaterials by preserving its conformation and thus function. Furthermore, our work provides a new insight into a new way to accurately tailor material surface bioactivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA aptamers; biomaterials; fibronectin; integrins; cell morphology DNA aptamers; biomaterials; fibronectin; integrins; cell morphology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Parisi, L.; Toffoli, A.; Bianchi, M.G.; Bergonzi, C.; Bianchera, A.; Bettini, R.; Elviri, L.; Macaluso, G.M. Functional Fibronectin Adsorption on Aptamer-Doped Chitosan Modulates Cell Morphology by Integrin-Mediated Pathway. Materials 2019, 12, 812.

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