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Materials 2019, 12(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050808

Analytical Modeling of In-Process Temperature in Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing Considering Laser Power Absorption, Latent Heat, Scanning Strategy, and Powder Packing

1
Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405, USA
2
The Boeing Company, 499 Boeing Boulevard, Huntsville, AL 35824, USA
3
Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 771 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing: Alloy Design and Process Innovations)
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Abstract

Temperature distribution gradient in metal powder bed additive manufacturing (MPBAM) directly controls the mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy of the build part. Experimental approach and numerical modeling approach for temperature in MPBAM are limited by the restricted accessibility and high computational cost, respectively. Analytical models were reported with high computational efficiency, but the developed models employed a moving coordinate and semi-infinite medium assumption, which neglected the part dimensions, and thus reduced their usefulness in real applications. This paper investigates the in-process temperature in MPBAM through analytical modeling using a stationary coordinate with an origin at the part boundary (absolute coordinate). Analytical solutions are developed for temperature prediction of single-track scan and multi-track scans considering scanning strategy. Inconel 625 is chosen to test the proposed model. Laser power absorption is inversely identified with the prediction of molten pool dimensions. Latent heat is considered using the heat integration method. The molten pool evolution is investigated with respect to scanning time. The stabilized temperatures in the single-track scan and bidirectional scans are predicted under various process conditions. Close agreements are observed upon validation to the experimental values in the literature. Furthermore, a positive relationship between molten pool dimensions and powder packing porosity was observed through sensitivity analysis. With benefits of the absolute coordinate, and high computational efficiency, the presented model can predict the temperature for a dimensional part during MPBAM, which can be used to further investigate residual stress and distortion in real applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: in-process temperature in MPBAM; analytical modeling; high computational efficiency; molten pool evolution; laser power absorption; latent heat; scanning strategy; powder packing in-process temperature in MPBAM; analytical modeling; high computational efficiency; molten pool evolution; laser power absorption; latent heat; scanning strategy; powder packing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ning, J.; Sievers, D.E.; Garmestani, H.; Liang, S.Y. Analytical Modeling of In-Process Temperature in Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing Considering Laser Power Absorption, Latent Heat, Scanning Strategy, and Powder Packing. Materials 2019, 12, 808.

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