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Investigation of Copper Alloying in a TNTZ-Cux Alloy
Open AccessArticle

Development of Antibacterial Ti-Cux Alloys for Dental Applications: Effects of Ageing for Alloys with Up to 10 wt% Cu

1
Division of Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Randburg 2124, South Africa
3
School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, hosted by the University of the Witswatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(23), 4017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12234017
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ti-Based Biomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
Peri-implantitis, a disease caused by bacteria, affects dental implants in patients. It is widely treated with antibiotics, however, with growing antibiotic resistance new strategies are required. Titanium-copper alloys are prospective antibacterial biomaterials, with the potential to be a remedy against peri-implantitis and antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate Ti-Cux alloys, exploring how Cu content (up to 10 wt%) and ageing affect the material properties. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, hardness testing, bacteriological culture, and electrochemical testing were employed to characterize the materials. It was found that alloys with above 3 wt% Cu had two phases and ageing increased the volume fraction of Ti2Cu. An un-aged alloy of 5 wt% Cu showed what could be Ti3Cu, in addition to the α-Ti phase. The hardness gradually increased with increased Cu additions, while ageing only affected the alloy with 10 wt% Cu (due to changes in microstructure). Ageing resulted in faster passivation of the alloys. After two hours the aged 10 wt% Cu alloy was the only material with an antibacterial effect, while after six hours, bacteria killing occurred in all alloys with above 5 wt% Cu. In conclusion, it was possible to tune the material and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cux alloys by changing the Cu concentration and ageing, which makes further optimization towards an antibacterial material promising. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium alloys; copper; Ti2Cu; Ti3Cu; biomaterial; antibacterial titanium alloys; copper; Ti2Cu; Ti3Cu; biomaterial; antibacterial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fowler, L.; Masia, N.; Cornish, L.A.; Chown, L.H.; Engqvist, H.; Norgren, S.; Öhman-Mägi, C. Development of Antibacterial Ti-Cux Alloys for Dental Applications: Effects of Ageing for Alloys with Up to 10 wt% Cu. Materials 2019, 12, 4017.

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