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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Sintering on In Vivo Biological Performance of Chemically Deproteinized Bovine Hydroxyapatite

1
Department of Periodontology and Oral Surgery, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2
Adjunct Professor, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 1120, USA
3
Department of Biomaterials, WishBone SA, 4000, Liège, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233946
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 23 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bone Substitute Biology, Production, and Materials)
The influence of the manufacturing process on physicochemical properties and biological performance of xenogenic biomaterials has been extensively studied, but its quantification on bone-to-material contact remains poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different heat treatments of an experimental chemically-deproteinized bovine hydroxyapatite in vivo in terms of new bone formation and osteoconductivity. Protein-free hydroxyapatite from bovine origin was produced under sub-critical conditions and then either sintered at 820 °C or 1200 °C. Structural and morphological properties were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), measurement of surface area and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The materials were then implanted in standardized alveolar bone defects in minipigs and histomorphometric evaluations were performed using non-decalcified sections. Marked topographical differences were observed by SEM analysis. As the sintering temperature of the experimental material increased, the surface area significantly decreased while crystallite size increased. In vivo samples showed that the highly sintered BHA presented a significantly lower percentage of newly formed bone than the unheated one (p = 0.009). In addition, the percentage of bone-to-material contact (BMC) was significantly lowered in the highly sintered group when compared to the unsintered (p = 0.01) and 820 °C sintered (p = 0.02) groups. Non-sintered or sintered at 820 °C BHA seems to maintain a certain surface roughness allowing better bone regeneration and BMC. On the contrary, sintering of BHA at 1200 °C has an effect on its morphological and structural characteristics and significantly modify its biological performance (osteoconductivity) and crystallinity. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone regeneraton; hydroxyapatite; osteoconduction; surface microtopograraphy; sintering bone regeneraton; hydroxyapatite; osteoconduction; surface microtopograraphy; sintering
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Carvalho, B.; Rompen, E.; Lecloux, G.; Schupbach, P.; Dory, E.; Art, J.-F.; Lambert, F. Effect of Sintering on In Vivo Biological Performance of Chemically Deproteinized Bovine Hydroxyapatite. Materials 2019, 12, 3946.

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