Next Article in Journal
Sorption of Heavy Metal Cations on Mesoporous ZSM-5 and Mordenite Zeolites
Previous Article in Journal
A Study of the Structural Characteristics of Titanium Alloy Products Manufactured Using Additive Technologies by Combining the Selective Laser Melting and Direct Metal Deposition Methods
Previous Article in Special Issue
Silicon and Iron as Resource-Efficient Anode Materials for Ambient-Temperature Metal-Air Batteries: A Review
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of a Novel Al-Ion and a Li-Ion Battery for Stationary Applications

1
Industrial Ecology Program, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, E1-Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
ACCUREC Recycling GmbH, Bataverstraße 21, DE-47809 Krefeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193270
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 24 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Residential Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems)
The foreseen high penetration of fluctuant renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, will cause an increased need for batteries to store the energy produced and not instantaneously consumed. Due to the high production cost and significant environmental impacts associated with the production of lithium-ion nickel-manganese-cobalt (Li-ion NMC) batteries, several chemistries are proposed as a potential substitute. This study aims to identify and compare the lifecycle environmental impacts springing from a novel Al-ion battery, with the current state-of-the-art chemistry, i.e., Li-ion NMC. The global warming potential (GWP) indicator was selected to express the results due to its relevance to society, policy and to facilitate the comparison of our results with other research. The cradle-to-grave process-based assessment uses two functional units: (1) per-cell manufactured and (2) per-Wh of storage capacity. The results identified the battery’s production as the highest carbon intensity phase, being the energy usage the main contributor to GWP. In general, the materials and process involved in the manufacturing and recycling of the novel battery achieve a lower environmental impact in comparison to the Li-ion technology. However, due to the Al-ion’s low energy density, a higher amount of materials are needed to deliver equivalent performance than a Li-ion. View Full-Text
Keywords: industrial ecology; life cycle assessment; aluminium-ion; lithium-ion; cradle-to-grave; stationary battery; decentralized energy systems industrial ecology; life cycle assessment; aluminium-ion; lithium-ion; cradle-to-grave; stationary battery; decentralized energy systems
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Salgado Delgado, M.A.; Usai, L.; Pan, Q.; Hammer Strømman, A. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of a Novel Al-Ion and a Li-Ion Battery for Stationary Applications. Materials 2019, 12, 3270.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop