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Open AccessArticle

Characterization and Cellular Internalization of Spherical Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC) into Normal and Cancerous Fibroblasts

1
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Bioprocess, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Brain Mapping and Neuroinformatics Unit, Centre for Neuroscience Services and Research (P3Neuro), Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
6
Human Informatics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193251
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 25 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity and Functionalization of Nanomaterials)
The aim was to isolate cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from commercialized oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose nanofibre (CNF) through sulphuric acid hydrolysis and explore its safeness as a potential nanocarrier. Successful extraction of CNC was confirmed through a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transmission infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry analysis. For subsequent cellular uptake study, the spherical CNC was covalently tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), resulting in negative charged FITC-CNC nanospheres with a dispersity (Ð) of 0.371. MTT assay revealed low degree cytotoxicity for both CNC and FITC-CNC against C6 rat glioma and NIH3T3 normal fibroblasts up to 50 µg/mL. FITC conjugation had no contribution to the particle’s toxicity. Through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), synthesized FITC-CNC manifested negligible cellular accumulation, indicating a poor non-selective adsorptive endocytosis into studied cells. Overall, an untargeted CNC-based nanosphere with less cytotoxicity that posed poor selectivity against normal and cancerous cells was successfully synthesized. It can be considered safe and suitable to be developed into targeted nanocarrier. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluorescently labelled; cellulose nanocrystals; preparation; cytotoxicity; internalization; shape; endocytosis fluorescently labelled; cellulose nanocrystals; preparation; cytotoxicity; internalization; shape; endocytosis
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Shazali, N.A.H.; Zaidi, N.E.; Ariffin, H.; Abdullah, L.C.; Ghaemi, F.; Abdullah, J.M.; Takashima, I.; Nik Abd. Rahman, N.M.A. Characterization and Cellular Internalization of Spherical Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC) into Normal and Cancerous Fibroblasts. Materials 2019, 12, 3251.

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  • Supplementary File 1:

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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3355532
    Link: https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.3355532.svg
    Description: Figure S1. (a) AFM micrograph showing the co-existence of ribbon-shaped and spherical CNC. Histograms of (b) ribbon-shaped CNC length and (c) ribbon-shaped CNC diameter and their respective averages.
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