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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Wire Ropes and CFRP Strips to Provide Masonry Walls with Out-Of-Plane Strengthening

Department of Civil, Environmental and Materials Engineering—DICAM, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172712
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reinforcement and Repair Materials for Masonry Structures)
The present paper deals with an improvement of the strengthening technique consisting in the combined use of straps—made of stainless steel ribbons—and CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) strips, to increase the out-of-plane ultimate load of masonry walls. The straps of both the previous and the new combined technique pass from one face to the opposite face of the masonry wall through some holes made along the thickness, giving rise to a three-dimensional net of loop-shaped straps, closed on themselves. The new technique replaces the stainless steel ribbons with steel wire ropes, which form closed loops around the masonry units and the CFRP strips as in the previous technique. A turnbuckle for each steel wire rope allows the closure of the loops and provides the desired pre-tension to the straps. The mechanical coupling—given by the frictional forces—between the straps and the CFRP strips on the two faces of the masonry wall gives rise to an I-beam behavior that forces the CFRP strips to resist the load as if they were the two flanges of the same I-beam. Even the previous combined technique exploits the ideal I-beam mechanism, but the greater stiffness of the steel wire ropes compared to the stiffness of the steel ribbons makes the constraint between the facing CFRP strips stiffer. This gives the reinforced structural element a greater stiffness and delamination load. In particular, the experimental results show that the maximum load achievable with the second combined technique is much greater than the maximum load provided by the CFRP strips. Even the ultimate displacement turns out to be increased, allowing us to state that the second combined technique improves both strength and ductility. Since the CFRP strips of the combined technique run along the vertical direction of the wall, the ideal I-beam mechanism is particularly useful to counteract the hammering action provided by the floors on the perimeter walls, during an earthquake. Lastly, when the building suffers heavy structural damage due to a strong earthquake, the box-type behavior offered by the three-dimensional net of straps prevents the building from collapsing, acting as a device for safeguarding life. View Full-Text
Keywords: masonry buildings; hammering actions; out-of-plane strengthening; three-dimensional strengthening; carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips; textile reinforced mortar (TRM) masonry buildings; hammering actions; out-of-plane strengthening; three-dimensional strengthening; carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips; textile reinforced mortar (TRM)
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Ferretti, E. Wire Ropes and CFRP Strips to Provide Masonry Walls with Out-Of-Plane Strengthening. Materials 2019, 12, 2712.

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