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New Sulfur Organic Polymer-Concrete Composites Containing Waste Materials: Mechanical Characteristics and Resistance to Biocorrosion

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Institute of Technology Fermentation and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
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Department of Concrete Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Al. Politechniki 6, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
3
Institute of Polymer and Dye Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 12/16, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162602
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
The aim of this study was to develop new sulfur-copolymer concrete composites using waste compounds that have good mechanical characteristics and show a resistance to biocorrosion. The comonomers used to synthesize the sulfur–organic copolymers were—90 wt. % sulfur; 5 wt. % dicyclopentadiene (DCPD); 5 wt. % organic monomers, styrene (SDS), 1-decene (SDD), turpentine (SDT), and furfural (SDF). The concrete composites based on sulfur–organic copolymers were filled with aggregates, sand, gravel, as well as additives and industrial waste such as fly ash or phosphogypsum. The sulfur–organic copolymers were found to be chemically stable (softening temperature, thermal stability, melting temperature, amount of recrystallized sulfur, and shore D hardness). Partial replacement of DCPD with other organic comonomers did not change the thermal stability markedly but did make the copolymers more elastic. However, the materials became significantly stiffer after repeated melting. All the tested copolymers were found to be resistant to microbial corrosion. The highest resistance was exhibited by the SDS-containing polymer, while the SDF polymer exhibited the greatest change due to the activity of the microorganisms (FTIR analysis and sulfur crystallization). The concrete composites with sulfur–organic copolymers containing DCPD, SDS, SDF, fly ash, and phosphogypsum were mechanically resistant to compression and stretching, had low water absorbance, and were resistant to factors, such as temperature and salt. Resistance to freezing and thawing (150 cycles) was not confirmed. The concrete composites with sulfur–organic copolymers showed resistance to bacterial growth and acid activity during 8 weeks of incubation with microorganisms. No significant structural changes were observed in the SDS composites after incubation with bacteria, whereas composites containing SDF showed slight changes (FTIR and microscopic analysis). The concrete composite containing sulfur, DCPD, SDS, sand, gravel, and fly ash was the most resistant to microbiological corrosion, based on the metabolic activity of the bacteria and the production of ergosterol by the molds after eight weeks of incubation. It was found that Thiobacillus thioparus was the first of the acidifying bacteria to colonize the sulfur concrete, decreasing the pH of the environment. The molds Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium herbarum were able to grow on the surface of the tested composites only in the presence of an organic carbon source (glucose). During incubation, they produced organic acids and acidified the environment. However, no morphological changes in the concretes were observed suggesting that sulfur–organic copolymers containing styrene could be used as engineering materials or be applied as binders in sulfur-concretes. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfur-polymer concrete composites; biocorrosion sulfur-polymer concrete composites; biocorrosion
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Gutarowska, B.; Kotynia, R.; Bieliński, D.; Anyszka, R.; Wręczycki, J.; Piotrowska, M.; Koziróg, A.; Berłowska, J.; Dziugan, P. New Sulfur Organic Polymer-Concrete Composites Containing Waste Materials: Mechanical Characteristics and Resistance to Biocorrosion. Materials 2019, 12, 2602.

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