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Open AccessReview

Use of Biopolymers in Mucosally-Administered Vaccinations for Respiratory Disease

1
Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
2
Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Lee University, Cleveland, TN 37311, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 030018 Bucuresti, Romania
4
Research Institute of the University of Bucharest (ICUB), 050107 Bucharest, Romania
5
Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
6
Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152445
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
Communicable respiratory infections are the cause of a significant number of infectious diseases. The introduction of vaccinations has greatly improved this situation. Moreover, adjuvants have allowed for vaccines to be more effective with fewer adverse side effects. However, there is still space for improvement because while the more common injected formulations induce a systematic immunity, they do not confer the mucosal immunity needed for more thorough prevention of the spread of respiratory disease. Intranasal formulations provide systemic and mucosal immune protection, but they have the potential for more serious side effects and a less robust immune response. This review looks at seven different adjuvants—chitosan, starch, alginate, gellan, β-glucan, emulsan and hyaluronic acid—and their prospective ability to improve intranasal vaccines as adjuvants and antigen delivery systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymeric vaccines; respiratory infections; mucosal administration; immunomodulation; nanovaccines polymeric vaccines; respiratory infections; mucosal administration; immunomodulation; nanovaccines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dedloff, M.R.; Effler, C.S.; Holban, A.M.; Gestal, M.C. Use of Biopolymers in Mucosally-Administered Vaccinations for Respiratory Disease. Materials 2019, 12, 2445.

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