Next Article in Journal
Monitoring the Environmental Aging of Nanomaterials: An Opportunity for Mesocosm Testing?
Next Article in Special Issue
In Vivo Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Electrospun Micro/Nanofibrous Patches Loaded with Pinus halepensis Bark Extract on Hairless Mice Skin
Previous Article in Journal
Free Vibrations of Sandwich Plates with Damaged Soft-Core and Non-Uniform Mechanical Properties: Modeling and Finite Element Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Preparation and Characterization of Natural Bleaching Gels Used in Cosmetic Dentistry
Open AccessReview

Use of Biopolymers in Mucosally-Administered Vaccinations for Respiratory Disease

Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Lee University, Cleveland, TN 37311, USA
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 030018 Bucuresti, Romania
Research Institute of the University of Bucharest (ICUB), 050107 Bucharest, Romania
Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2445;
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
Communicable respiratory infections are the cause of a significant number of infectious diseases. The introduction of vaccinations has greatly improved this situation. Moreover, adjuvants have allowed for vaccines to be more effective with fewer adverse side effects. However, there is still space for improvement because while the more common injected formulations induce a systematic immunity, they do not confer the mucosal immunity needed for more thorough prevention of the spread of respiratory disease. Intranasal formulations provide systemic and mucosal immune protection, but they have the potential for more serious side effects and a less robust immune response. This review looks at seven different adjuvants—chitosan, starch, alginate, gellan, β-glucan, emulsan and hyaluronic acid—and their prospective ability to improve intranasal vaccines as adjuvants and antigen delivery systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymeric vaccines; respiratory infections; mucosal administration; immunomodulation; nanovaccines polymeric vaccines; respiratory infections; mucosal administration; immunomodulation; nanovaccines
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Dedloff, M.R.; Effler, C.S.; Holban, A.M.; Gestal, M.C. Use of Biopolymers in Mucosally-Administered Vaccinations for Respiratory Disease. Materials 2019, 12, 2445.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

Back to TopTop