To improve the low-temperature performance of the Buton rock asphalt (BRA)-modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was added to it. The BRA-modified asphalt and SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt were prepared by high-speed shearing method. The penetration, softening point, ductility, and Brookfield viscosity of the two kinds of asphalt were measured. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and the beam bending rheometer (BBR) were employed to research the performance of BRA-modified asphalt by adding SBR. The results showed that the pure asphalt in BRA was the main reason to reduce the low-temperature performance of neat asphalt when the content of BRA was 19%. However, the ash in BRA was the main factor to reduce the low-temperature performance when its content was more than 39.8%. When the BRA content was 59.8%, the SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt with SBR contents of 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%, and it shows that the penetration and ductility of the BRA-modified asphalt are increased by the addition of SBR. The equivalent brittle point was reduced, the stiffness modulus was decreased, and the creep rate was increased. At the same time, the Brookfield viscosity was reduced and the rutting factor was increased. The stiffness modulus of the SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt mixture was increased. That is to say, when SBR was mixed into the BRA-modified asphalt, the low-temperature performance could be remarkably improved based on ensuring high-temperature performance. The low-temperature index of composite modified asphalt was analyzed. It was recommended to apply the equivalent brittle point to evaluate the low-temperature performance of SBR-BRA composite modified asphalt.
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