# Part I: The Analytical Model Predicting Post-Yield Behavior of Concrete-Encased Steel Beams Considering Various Confinement Effects by Transverse Reinforcements and Steels

Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea

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Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation, Fatigue and Fracture of Materials)

The purpose of the work was to propose analytical model considering double confinements (provided by both transverse reinforcements and a wide flange steel section), which was verified by the nonlinear finite element analysis considering concrete-damaged plasticity. The scope of the effort and the procedures to achieve the aim of this study included the identification of the concrete confinements provided by both transverse reinforcements and a wide flange steel section based on the elasto-plastic model in tension for both rebar/steel sections and elasto-buckling for rebars in compression. The influence of rebar buckling in the compression zone on flexural moment strength was also investigated with and without considering confining effects offered by steel sections. The analytical approach predicted a post-yield behavior of composite beams based on the confining effect offered by both the shear reinforcement and wide steel flange sections. However, for beams without axial loads, the compressive zones with high and partial confinements for concrete sections at the yield and maximum load limit state were limited when compressive buckling failure was not considered, preventing the confining factors from significantly influencing the flexural load resisting capacity. An accurate flexural capacity of composite beams can be obtained when rebar was modeled with buckling in the compression zone.